Back
 JEP  Vol.8 No.11 , October 2017
Peatland Fires in Riau, Indonesia, in Relation to Land Cover Type, Land Management, Landholder, and Spatial Management
Abstract: Peatland in Southeast Asia has an important function in the provision of ecosystem services such as carbon sink, climate regulation, water supply, biodiversity, and others. Recurrent fires in the peatland, especially in Indonesia, have changed peatland functions from carbon sequestration to carbon emission, causing severe environmental and economic problems. Fire prevention requires an understanding of the factors affecting fire in peatland. We compared fire occurrences in 2014 between different land cover types, land management systems, landholders, and proximity to roads and canals in Riau Province, Indonesia. Remote sensing and field data were collected and analyzed. Shrubland was the most fire-prone land cover, while plantations and mangrove forests were the least. Shrubland has high fire occurrence regardless of land management and landholder type. Peat swamp forests that are allowed to be utilized were more fire-prone than conserved peat swamp forests. Oil palms from unregistered companies had more fires than those from registered companies and smallholders. Coconut and sago plantations from companies had more fires than smallholder cultivation. Proximity to roads and canals affects the occurrence of fires in peat swamp forests; however, proximity had less of an effect on fire occurrence in shrubland. The high percentage of burned areas in shrubland showed that land cover was a major factor that affects fire in peatland, followed by land management, landholders, and proximity to roads and canals. These findings indicate the importance of law enforcement and land management systems, management schemes by different landholders, and the spatial arrangement of land cover, roads, and canals for integrated peatland management and restoration of shrubland into peat swamp forest and other fire-resistant land cover types with sustainable production.
Cite this paper: Prayoto, Ishihara, M. , Firdaus, R. and Nakagoshi, N. (2017) Peatland Fires in Riau, Indonesia, in Relation to Land Cover Type, Land Management, Landholder, and Spatial Management. Journal of Environmental Protection, 8, 1312-1332. doi: 10.4236/jep.2017.811081.
References

[1]   Page, S.E., Rieley, J.O. and Wüst, R. (2006) Chapter 7 Lowland Tropical Peatlands of Southeast Asia. In: Martini, I.P., Cortizas, A.M. and Chesworth, W., Eds., Peatlands: Evolution and Records of Environmental and Climate Changes, Elsevier Ltd., Amsterdam, 145-172.

[2]   Page, S.E. and Hooijer, A. (2016) In the Line of Fire: The Peatlands of Southeast Asia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Biological Sciences, 371, 1-9.
https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0176

[3]   Miettinen, J., Shi, C. and Liew, S.C. (2016) Land Cover Distribution in the Peatlands of Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo in 2015 with Changes since 1990. Global Ecology and Conservation, 6, 67-78.

[4]   Meer, P.J., Van Der and Verwer, C.C. (2011) Towards a Reference Carbon Value for Peat Swamp Forest in Southeast Asia Based on Historical Inventory Data. Workshop on Tropical Wetland Ecosystems of Indonesia: Science Needs to Address Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation, Bali, 1-4.
http://www.forestday.org/fileadmin/tropical-workshop/Plenary-4/31A_VanderMeer_Towards reference value.pdf

[5]   Page, S., Hoscilo, A., Langner, A., Tansey, K., et al. (2009) Tropical Peatland Fires in Southeast Asia. In: Cochrane, M.A., Ed., Tropical Fire Ecology, Springer, Berlin, 263-287.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-77381-8_9

[6]   The World Bank (2015) Reforming Amid Uncertainty, Indonesia Economic Quarterl. The World Bank, Jakarta.

[7]   Mabuhay, J.A., Isagi, Y. and Nakagoshi, N. (2004) Microbial Biomass, Abundance and Community Diversity Determined by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis in Soil at Varying Periods after Occurrence of Forest Fire. Microbes and Environment, 19, 154-162.
https://doi.org/10.1264/jsme2.19.154

[8]   Aiken, S.R. (2004) Runaway Fires, Smoke-Haze Pollution, and Unnatural Disasters in Indonesia. American Geographical Society, 94, 55-79.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1931-0846.2004.tb00158.x

[9]   Putra, E.I., Hayasaka, H., Takahashi, H. and Usup, A. (2008) Recent Peat Fire Activity in the Mega Rice Project Area, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Disaster Research, 3, 1-6.
https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2008.p0334

[10]   Wösten, J.H.M., Van Den Berg, J., Van Eijk, P., Gevers, G.J.M., et al. (2006) Interrelationships between Hydrology and Ecology in Fire Degraded Tropical Peat Swamp Forests. Water Resources Development, 22, 157-174.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07900620500405973

[11]   Chokkalingam, U., Kurniawan, I. and Ruchiat, Y. (2005) Fire, Livelihoods, and Environmental Change in the Middle Mahakam Peatlands, East Kalimantan. Ecology and Society, 10, 1-17.
https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-01320-100126

[12]   Chokkalingam, U., Suyanto, Permana, R.P., Kurniawan, I., et al. (2007) Community Fire Use, Resource Change, and Livelihood Impacts: The Downward Spiral in the Wetlands of Southern Sumatra. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12, 75-100.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-006-9038-5

[13]   Goldammer, J.G. (1999) Forests on Fire. Science, 284, 1782-1783.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5421.1782a

[14]   Field, R.D., van der Werf, G.R. and Shen, S.S.P. (2009) Human Amplification of Drought-Induced Biomass Burning in Indonesia since 1960. Nature Geoscience, 2, 185-188.
https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo443

[15]   Miettinen, J., Hooijer, A., Shi, C., Tollenaar, D., et al. (2012) Extent of Industrial Plantations on Southeast Asian Peatlands in 2010 with Analysis of Historical Expansion and Future Projections. Global Change Biology, 4, 908-918.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1757-1707.2012.01172.x

[16]   Suyanto, S., Applegate, G., Permana, R.P., Khususiyah, N. and Kurniawan, I. (2004) The Role of Fire in Changing Land Use and Livelihoods in Riau, Sumatra. Ecology and Society, 9, 1-11.
https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-00632-090115

[17]   Hooijer, A., Page, S., Jauhiainen, J., Lee, W.A., et al. (2012) Subsidence and Carbon Loss in Drained Tropical Peatlands. Biogeosciences, 9, 1053-1071.
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-9-1053-2012

[18]   Marlier, M.E., DeFries, R.S., Kim, P.S., Koplitz, S.N., et al. (2015) Fire Emissions and Regional Air Quality Impacts from Fires in Oil Palm, Timber, and Logging Concessions in Indonesia. Environmental Research Letters, 10, 1-9.
https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/8/085005

[19]   Mabuhay, J.A., Nakagoshi, N. and Horikoshi, T. (2003) Microbial Biomass and Abundance after Forest Fire in Pine Forests in Japan. Ecological Research, 18, 431-441.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1703.2003.00567.x

[20]   Miettinen, J., Hooijer, A., Wang, J., Shi, C. and Liew, S.C. (2012) Peatland Degradation and Conversion Sequences and Interrelations in Sumatra. Regional Environmental Change, 12, 729-737.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-012-0290-9

[21]   Cattau, M.E., Harrison, M.E., Shinyo, I., Tungau, S., et al. (2016) Sources of Anthropogenic Fire Ignitions on the Peat-Swamp Landscape in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Global Environmental Change, 39, 205-219.

[22]   Hoscilo, A., Page, S.E., Tansey, K.J. and Rieley, J.O. (2011) Effect of Repeated Fires on Land-Cover Change on Peatland in Southern Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, from 1973 to 2005. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 20, 578-588.
https://doi.org/10.1071/WF10029

[23]   Gaveau, D.L., Salim, M., Hergoualc’h, K., Locatelli, B., et al. (2014) Major Atmospheric Emissions from Peat Fires in Southeast Asia during Non-Drought Years: Evidence from the 2013 Sumatran Fires. Scientific Reports, 4, 1-7.

[24]   Haryati, E. and Nakagoshi, N. (2013) Post-Fire Succession at Forest Vegetation in Giam Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve, Riau, Indonesia. Hikobia, 16, 335-349.

[25]   Stolle, F., Chomitz, K.M., Lambin, E.F. and Tomich, T.P. (2003) Land Use and Vegetation Fires in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 179, 277-292.

[26]   Page, S.E., Rieley, J., Hoscilo, A., Spessa, A. and Weber, U. (2013) Current Fire Fegimes, Impacts and the Likely Changes IV: Tropical Southeast Asia. In: Goldammer, J.G., Ed., Vegetation Fires and Global Change-Challenges for Concerted International Action a White Paper Directed to the United Nations and International Organizations, Kessel Publishing House, Remagen-Oberwinterl, 89-99.

[27]   Gouyon, A. (1999) The Sustainable Development of Tree Crops and the Prevention of Vegetation Fires in South Sumatra, Indonesia: Jungle Rubber. Forest Fire Prevention and Control Project, Palembang.

[28]   Galudra, G., van Noordwijk, M., Agung, P., Suyanto, S. and Pradhan, U. (2014) Migrants, Land Markets and Carbon Emissions in Jambi, Indonesia: Land Tenure Change and the Prospect of Emission Reduction. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 19, 715-731.

[29]   Gaveau, D.L.A., Pirard, R., Salim, M.A., Tonoto, P., et al. (2017) Overlapping Land Claims Limit the Use of Satellites to Monitor No-Deforestation Commitments and No-Burning Compliance. Conservation Letters, 10, 257-264.
https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12256

[30]   Langner, A. and Sieger, F. (2009) Spatiotemporal Fire Occurrence in Borneo over a Period of 10 Years. Global Change Biology, 15, 48-62.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01828.x

[31]   Stolle, F. and Lambin, E.F. (2003) Interprovincial and Interannual Differences in the Causes of Land-Use Fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Environmental Conservation, 30, 375-387.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892903000390

[32]   WWF Indonesia (2013) Palming off a National Park. Tracking Illegal Oil Palm Fruit in Riau, Sumatra, WWF Indonesia, Jakarta.

[33]   Ekadinata, A., Noordwijk, M., Budidarsono, S. and Dewi, S. (2013) Hot Spots in Riau, Haze in Singapore: The June 2013 Event Analyzed. Policy Brief. Alternatives Slash and Burn Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins, Nairobi.

[34]   Raharjo, B. and Nakagoshi, N. (2014), Stochastic Approach on Forest Fire Spatial Distribution from Forest Accessibility in Forest Management Units, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 517-529.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2014.56055

[35]   The World Bank (2014) Hard Choices. The World Bank, Jakarta.

[36]   Statistics of Riau Province, Riau in Figure 2015, Statistics of Riau Province, Pekanbaru.
http://riau.bps.go.id/websiteV2/pdf_publikasi/Riau-Dalam-Angka-2015.pdf

[37]   Roy, D.P., Wulder, M.A., Loveland, T.R., et al. (2014) Landsat-8: Science and Product Vision for Terrestrial Global Change Research. Remote Sensing of Environment, 145, 154-172.

[38]   Margono, B.A., Turubanova, S., Zhuravleva, I., Potapov, P., et al. (2012) Mapping and Monitoring Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Sumatra (Indonesia) using Landsat Time Series Data Sets from 1990 to 2010. Environmental Research Letters, 7, 1-16.
https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/7/3/034010

[39]   Jia, K., Wei, X., Gu, X., Yao, Y., et al. (2014) Land Cover Classification using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager Data in Beijing, China. Geocarto International, 29, 941-951.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2014.894586

[40]   Chavez, P.S. (1996) Image-Based Atmospheric Corrections-Revisited and Improved. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 62, 1025-1035.

[41]   Yacouba, D., Guangdao, H. and Xingping, W. (2009) Applications of Remote Sensing in Land Use/Land Cover Change Detection in Puer and Simao Counties, Yunnan Province. Journal of American Science, 5, 157-166.

[42]   Buja, K. and Menza, C. (2013) Sampling Design Tool for ArcGIS Instruction Manual (Silver Spring: National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science).
http://aquaticcommons.org/14676/1/Buja and Menza 2013.pdf

[43]   Powell, R.L., Matzke, N., De Souza, C., Clark, M., et al. (2004) Sources of Error in Accuracy Assessment of Thematic Land-Cover Maps in the Brazilian Amazon. Remote Sensing of Environment, 90, 221-234.

[44]   Giglio, L., Descloitres, J., Justice, C.O. and Kaufman, Y.J. (2003) An Enhanced Contextual Fire Detection Algorithm for MODIS. Remote Sensing of Environment, 87, 273-282.

[45]   Indonesian Working Group on Forest Finance (2010) Estimation of Source of Raw Material Pulp & Paper Industry. Indonesian Working Group on Forest Finance, Jakarta. (In Indonesian)
http://docslide.us/documents/iwgffstudi-advokasi-pt-rapp-pt-ikpp-di-propinsi-riau-55993ea81e3c6.html

[46]   Jensen, J.R. (2005) Introductory Digital Image Processing: A Remote Sensing Perspective. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

[47]   Miettinen, J., Shi, C. and Chin, S. (2011) Influence of Peatland and Land Cover Distribution on Fire Regimes in Insular Southeast Asia. Regional Environmental Change, 11, 191-201.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-010-0131-7

[48]   Miettinen, J., Wang, J., Hooijer, A. and Liew, S. (2013) Peatland Conversion and Degradation Processes in Insular Southeast Asia: A Case Study in Jambi, Indonesia. Land Degradation and Development, 24, 334-341.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.1130

[49]   Clough, Y., Krishna, V.V., Corre, M.D., Darras, K., et al. (2016) Land-Use Choices Follow Profitability at the Expense of Ecological Functions in Indonesian Smallholder Landscapes. Nature Communications, 7, 1-12.
https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms13137

[50]   Purnomo, H., Shantiko, B., Sitorus, S., Gunawan, H., et al. (2017) Fire Economy and Actor Network of Forest and Land Fires in Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics, 78, 21-31.

[51]   Cochrane, M.A. (2003) Fire Science for Rainforests. Nature, 421, 913-919.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01437

[52]   Langner, A., Miettinen, J. and Siegert, F. (2007) Land Cover Change 2002-2005 in Borneo and the Role of Fire Derived from MODIS Imagery. Global Change Biology, 13, 2329-2340.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01442.x

[53]   Gaveau, D.L.A., Linkie, M., Suyadi, Levang, P. and Leader-Williams, N. (2009) Three Decades of Deforestation in Southwest Sumatra: Effects of Coffee Prices, Law Enforcement and Rural Poverty. Biological Conservation, 142, 597-605.

[54]   Pasaribu, S.M. and Supena, F. (2008) Understanding Cause of Forest and Land Fire and the Prevention: Case Study West Kalimantan Province. Socio-Economic of Agriculture and Agribusiness, 8, 1-23.

[55]   Ekawati, S. (2013) Evaluation of the Implementation of Decentralization Policy on Production Forest Management. Journal of Forestry Policy Analysis, 10, 187-202. (In Indonesian)

[56]   Gunawan, H., Kobayashi, S., Mizuno, K. and Kono, Y. (2012) Peat Swamp Forest Types and Their Regeneration in Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve, Riau, East Sumatra, Indonesia. Mires and Peat, 10, 1-17.

[57]   Cattau, M.E., Marlier, M.E. and DeFries, R. (2016) Effectiveness of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) for Reducing Fires on Oil Palm Concessions in Indonesia from 2012 to 2015. Environmental Research Letters, 11, 1-11.
https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/10/105007

[58]   Murdiyarso, D. and Adiningsih, E.S. (2007) Climate Anomalies, Indonesian Vegetation Fires and Terrestrial Carbon Emissions. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12, 101-112.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-006-9047-4

[59]   Notohadiprawiro, T. (1997) Twenty Five Years Experience in Peatland Development for Agriculture in Indonesia. Biodiversity and Sustainability of Tropical Peatlands, 1997, 301-309.

[60]   Indonesia Climate Change Center (2014) Sustainable Peatland Management (SPM) across Sectors Project Report, Indonesia Climate Change Center, Jakarta.

[61]   Akbar, A. (2008) Community Based Fire Management as an Effort to Solve the REDD Risk. Tekno Forest Plantation, 1, 11-22. (In Indonesian)

[62]   Wösten, J.H.M., Clymans, E., Page, S.E., Rieley, J.O. and Limin, S.H. (2008) Peat-Water Interrelationships in a Tropical Peatland Ecosystem in Southeast Asia. Catena, 73, 212-224.

 
 
Top