MSA  Vol.8 No.11 , October 2017
Effects of the Fiber Diameter on Mechanic Properties in Polymethyl-Methacrylate Composites Reinforced with Goose Feather Fiber
Abstract: The polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA)-based composites were prepared using goose feather fibers at different diameters. The fibers, which were washed and dried, cut through the shaft, and their sizes were shrunk to short fiber form. Then the obtained short fibers were added into acryl matrix in portions of 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% in volume. The mixture containing goose feather fiber was shaped via free casting method, and the goose feather fiber/PMMA composites were obtained. The samples, which were processed in accordance with the standards of test to be implemented after the thermal curing process, were characterized in terms of the mechanical properties after being evaluated by using three-point flexure test and impact test. For the goose feather-added composites, a significant increase was observed in rupture resistance, flexural strength, and flexure module. The flexure test curves of composites clearly revealed the slow and stable crack enlargement. Micro mechanisms of toughening and rupture processes were observed under the light of microstructure of rupture surfaces. The results of present study showed that the goose feather can be used as an important reinforcing material for bio-composites.
Cite this paper: Büyükkaya, K. (2017) Effects of the Fiber Diameter on Mechanic Properties in Polymethyl-Methacrylate Composites Reinforced with Goose Feather Fiber. Materials Sciences and Applications, 8, 811-827. doi: 10.4236/msa.2017.811059.

[1]   Mohanty, A.K., Misra, M. and Drzal, L.T. (2002) Sustainable Bio-Composites from Renewable Resources: Opportunities and Challenges in the Green Materials World. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 10, 19-26.

[2]   Bledzki, A.K. and Gassan, J. (1999) Composites Reinforced with Cellulose Based Fibres. Progress in Polymer Science, 24, 221-274.

[3]   Lundquist, L., Marque, B., Hagstrand, P.O., Leterrier, Y. and Manson, J.A. (2003) Novel Pulp Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites. Composites Science and Technology, 63, 137-152.

[4]   Jana, S.C. and Prieto, A. (2002) On the Development of Natural Fiber Composites of High-Temperature Thermoplastic Polymers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 86, 2159-2167.

[5]   Nunez, A.J., Kenny, J.M., Reboredo, M.M., Aranguren, M.I. and Marcovich, N.E. (2002) Thermal and Dynamic Mechanical Characterization of Polypropylene-Woodflour Composites. Polymer Engineering & Science, 42, 733-742.

[6]   Schneider, J.P., Myers, G.E., Clemons, C.M. and English, B.W. (1995) Biofibers as Reinforcing Fillers in Thermoplastic Composites. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, 1, 103-108.

[7]   Hughes, M., Hill, C. A.S. and Hague, J.R.B. (2002) The Fracture Toughness of Bastfibre Reinforced Polyester Composites Part 1 Evaluation and Analysis. Journal of materials science, 37, 4669-4676.

[8]   Jayaraman, K. (2003) Manufacturing Sisal-Polypropylene Composites with Minimum Fibre Degradation. Composites Science and Technology, 63, 367-374.

[9]   Rana, A.K., Mandal, A. and Bandyopadhyay, S. (2003) Short Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Compatibiliser, Impact Modifier and Fiber Loading. Composites Science and Technology, 63, 801-806.

[10]   Mothé, C.G., Monteiro, D.F.J. and Mothé, M. G. (2016) Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Behavior Analysis of Composites Based on Polypropylene Recycled with Vegetal Leaves. Materials Sciences and Applications, 7, 349.

[11]   Winandy, J.E., Muehl, J.H., Glaeser, J.A. and Schmidt, W. (2007) Chicken Feather Fiber as an Additive in MDF Composites. Journal of Natural Fibers, 4, 35-48.

[12]   Aluigi, A., Vineis, C., Ceria, A. and Tonin, C. (2008) Composite Biomaterials from Fibre Wastes: Characterization of Wool-Cellulose Acetate Blends. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 39, 126-132.

[13]   Fraser, R.D. and MacRae, T.P. (1979) Molecular Structure and Mechanical Properties of Keratins. In: Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology, Vol. 34, 211-246.

[14]   Aluigi, A., Vineis, C., Varesano, A., Mazzuchetti, G., Ferrero, F. and Tonin, C. (2008) Structure and Properties of Keratin/PEO Blend Nanofibres. European Polymer Journal, 44, 2465-2475.

[15]   Buckland, R.B. and Guy, G. (2002) Goose Production (No. 154) Food & Agriculture Org.

[16]   Celik, B. (2007) Musyoresiyerlikazlarindakesimvekarkasozellikleri. Master’s Thesis, Afyon Kocatepe üniversitesi, SaglikBilim-leriEnstitüsü.

[17]   Shalev, B.A. and Pasternak, H. (1999) Genetic-Economic Evaluation of Traits in a Goose Meat Enterprise. British Poultry Science, 40, 221-226.

[18]   Süpüren Mengüc, G. and Ozdil, N. (2014) Ozel Hayvansal Lifler. Electronic Journal of Vehicle Technologies, 8.

[19]   Gao, J., Yu, W. and Pan, N. (2007) Structures and Properties of the Goose down as a Material for Thermal Insulation. Textile Research Journal, 77, 617-626.

[20]   Zhan, M. and Wool, R.P. (2013) Thermal Expansivity of Chicken Feather Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 128, 997-1003.

[21]   Cheng, S., Lau, K.T., Liu, T., Zhao, Y., Lam, P.M. and Yin, Y. (2009) Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Chicken Feather Fiber/PLA Green Composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 40, 650-654.

[22]   Ghani, S.A., Tan, S.J. and Yeng, T.S. (2013) Properties of Chicken Feather Fiber-Filled Low-Density Polyethylene Composites: The Effect of Polyethylene Grafted Maleic Anhydride. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52, 495-500.

[23]   George, B.R., Evazynajad, A., Bockarie, A., McBride, H., Bunik, T. and Scutti, A. (2004) Keratin Fiber Nonwovens for Erosion Control. In: Natural Fibers, Plastics and Composites, Springer, 67-81.

[24]   Barone, J.R. and Schmidt, W.F. (2005) Polyethylene Reinforced with Keratin Fibers Obtained from Chicken Feathers. Composites Science and Technology, 65, 173-181.

[25]   Alonso, R.S., Sanches, R. and Marcicano, J.P.P. (2013) Chicken Feather-Study of Physical Properties of Textile Fibers for Commercial Use. International Journal of Textile and Fashion Technology, 1, 29-38.

[26]   Cherepanov, G.P. (1967) The Propagation of Cracks in a Continuous Medium. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanic, 31, 503-512.

[27]   Zhang, X., Sun, Z. and Hu, X. (2014) Low Temperature Fracture Toughness of PMMA and Crack-Tip Conditions under Flat-Tipped Cylindrical Indenter. Polymer Testing, 38, 57-63.

[28]   Marshall, G.P., Coutts, L.H. and Williams, J.G. (1974) Temperature Effects in the Fracture of PMMA. Journal of Materials Science, 9, 1409-1419.

[29]   Atkins, A.G. and Mai, Y.W. (1985) Elastic and Plastic Fracture: Metals, Polymers, Ceramics, Composites, Biological Materials. Halsted Press, Ellis Horwood.

[30]   Ku, H., Wang, H., Pattarachaiyakoop, N. and Trada, M. (2011) A Review on the Tensile Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 42, 856-873.

[31]   Malkapuram, R., Kumar, V. and Negi, Y.S. (2009) Recent Development in Natural Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 28, 1169-1189.

[32]   Holbery, J. and Houston, D. (2006) Natural-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites in Automotive Applications. JOM Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 58, 80-86.

[33]   Cameron, G.J., Wess, T.J. and Bonser, R.H.C. (2003) Young’s Modulus Varies with Differential Orientation of Keratin in Feathers. Journal of Structural Biology, 143, 118-123.

[34]   Martinez-Hernandez, A.L., Velasco-Santos, C., de-Icaza, M. and Castano, V. (2003) Hierarchical Microstructure in Keratin Biofibers. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 9, 1282-1283.

[35]   Zhan, M. and Wool, R.P. (2011) Mechanical Properties of Chicken Feather Fibers. Polymer Composites, 32, 937-944.

[36]   Martínez-Hernández, A.L. and Velasco-Santos, C. (2012) Keratin Fibers from Chicken Feathers: Structure and Advances in Polymer Composites. Keratin: Structure, Properties and Applications, 149-211.

[37]   Hearle, J.W.S. (2000) A Critical Review of the Structural Mechanics of Wool and Hair Fibres. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 27, 123-138.

[38]   Low, I.M., Schmidt, P. and Lane, J. (1995) Synthesis and Properties of Cellulose-Fibre/Epoxy Laminates. Journal of Materials Science Letters, 14, 170-172.

[39]   Hong, C.K. and Wool, R.P. (2005) Development of a Bio-Based Composite Material from Soybean Oil and Keratin Fibers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 95, 1524-1538.