Back
 AJIBM  Vol.7 No.10 , October 2017
Labour Market Policies and Recruitment in Europe and Italy
Abstract: Over the last few years, most studies and labour market policies have focused on the competence of people seeking employment. Few studies have tackled the issue from the point of view of employers and how policy might affect the personnel recruitment. The aim of this article is to try to understand the impact of labour policy on the processes involved in seeking personnel, with specific reference to business organizations. After examining the strategic, organisational and environmental variables that affect the personnel recruitment, the study focuses on analysing active and passive labour policies in Europe and Italy. The results that emerge highlight the fact that labour policy affects certain specific aspects of the personnel recruitment: employee turnover, an individual’s employability, outplacement, efficiency of matching between job supply and demand, competitiveness of candidates and their productivity, efficient allocation of job offers, crowding-out effect, degree of selectivity and contingency of search campaigns. The article ends with a few observations regarding the limitations of the study and future research.
Cite this paper: Ingrassia, R. (2017) Labour Market Policies and Recruitment in Europe and Italy. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 7, 1136-1157. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.710082.
References

[1]   CNEL (National Economy and Labour Council) (2014) Rapportosulmercato del lavoro 2013-2014. Market Labour Report, 198, Note 56.
http://www.cnel.it

[2]   Marocco, M. (2013) La doppia anima dellepoliticheattive del lavoro e la RiformaFornero. [The Dual Soul of Active Labour Policies and Fornero Reform.] WP-CSDLE “Massimo D’Antona”, 2, 1-35.
http://csdle.lex.unict.it/workingpapers.aspx

[3]   Gore, T. (2005) Extending Employability or Solving Employers' Recruitment Problems? Demand-Led Approaches as an Instrument of Labour Market Policy. Urban Studies, 42, 341-353.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0042098042000316182

[4]   Ingrassia, R. (2016) Jobseeking Behaviour Theory: Le implicazioni per idatori di lavoro e loroprocessi di reclutamento. [Job-Seeking Behaviour Theory: Implications for Employers and Their Recruitment Processes.] Annalidella Facoltà di Economia, LXIX-LXX, 55-87.

[5]   Spoonley, P. (2008) Utilising a Demand-Led Approach in a Local Labour Market. Local Economy, 23, 19-30.
https://doi.org/10.1080/19401490801906536

[6]   Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B. and Wright, P.M. (2010) Human Resource Management. 7th Edition, MacGraw-Hill, Chicago.

[7]   Costa, G. and Gianecchini, M. (2013) Risorse Umane. [Human Resource.] MacGraw-Hill, Milano, 181-204.

[8]   Zerilli, A. (2002) Reclutamento, selezione e accoglimento del personale. [Recruitment, Selection and Onboarding of Staff.] Franco Angeli, Milano, 17.

[9]   Galluzzi, R. and Sala, E. (2009) La selezione: dagli Yes Men aitalenti. [Recruitment: from Yes Men to the Truly Talented.] In: Boldizzoni, D., Ed., Management dellerisorseumane [Human Resource Management], Il Sole 24 Ore, Milano, 65.

[10]   Dessler, G. (2015) Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. 4th Edition, Global Edition, Pearson International.

[11]   Schuler, R. and Jackson, S. (1987) Linking Competitive Strategies with Human Resource Management Practices. Academy of Management Executive, 1, 207-219.
https://doi.org/10.5465/AME.1987.4275740

[12]   Rutherford, M.W., Buller, P.F. and McMullen, P.R. (2003) Human Resource Management Problems over the Life Cycle of Small to Medium-Sized Firms. Human Resource Management, 42, 321-335.
https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.10093

[13]   Tam, S. and Gray, D.E. (2016) What Can We Learn from the Organizational Life Cycle Theory? A Conceptualization for the Practice of Workplace Learning. Journal of Management Research, 8, 18-30.
https://doi.org/10.5296/jmr.v8i2.9093

[14]   Baird, L. and Meshoulam, I. (1988) Managing Two Fits of Strategic Human Resource Management. Academy of Management Review, 13, 116-128.

[15]   Williamson, I.O. (2000) Employer Legitimacy and Recruitment Success in Small Businesses. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 25, 27-43.

[16]   Cardon, M.S. and Stevens, C.E. (2004) Managing Human Resources in Small Organizations: What Do We Know? Human Resource Management Review, 14, 295-323.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2004.06.001

[17]   Abraham, M., Kaliannan, M., Mohan, A.V. and Thomas, S. (2014) A Review of SMEs Recruitment and Selections Dilemma: Finding a Fit. The Journal of Developing Areas, 12, 1-17.

[18]   Tanova, C. (2003) Firm Size and Recruitment: Staffing Practices in Small and Large Organisations in North Cyprus. Career Development International, 8, 107-114.
https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430310465534

[19]   DeVaro, J. (2005) Employer Recruitment Strategies and the Labour Market Outcomes of New Hires.
http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/articles/106/

[20]   Daft, R. (2013) Organization Theory and Design. Cengage Learning, South West.

[21]   Cascio, W.F. and Wynn, P. (2004) Managing a Downsizing Process. Human Resource Management, 43, 425-436.
https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20034

[22]   Windolf, P. (1986) Recruitment, Selection, and Internal Labour Markets in Britain and Germany. Organization Studies, 7, 235-254.
https://doi.org/10.1177/017084068600700302

[23]   Adams, J., Greig, M. and MacQuaid, R.W. (2000) Mismatch Unemployment and Local Labour-Market Efficiency: The Role of Employer and Vacancy Characteristics. Environment and Planning, 32, 1841-1856.
https://doi.org/10.1068/a3342

[24]   Osterman, P. (1987) Choice of Employment System in Internal Labour Market. Industrial Relation, 26, 46-67.

[25]   Excelsior (2015) La domanda di professioni e di formazionedelle imprese italiane. [The Professional Skills and Training Required by Italian Firms.] Unioncamere-Ministero del Lavoro, Sistema Informativo Excelsior, Roma.

[26]   Howlet, M. and Ramesh, M. (1995) Studying Public Policy: Policy Cycle and Policy Subsystems. Oxford University Press, Toronto.

[27]   Martini, A. and Sisti, M. (2012) Valutare il successo delle politiche pubbliche. [Evaluating the Success of Public Policies.] Il Mulino, Bologna, 23.

[28]   ISFOL (2008) Diecianni di orientamentieuropei per l’occupazione (1997-2007). [Ten Years of European Employment Guidelines.] Rubbettino, Catanzaro, 157.

[29]   ISFOL (2014) Rapporto di monitoraggio del mercato del lavoroitaliano. [Italian Labour Market Monitoring Report.] I Libri del FondoSocialeEuropeo, Roma, 13.

[30]   Gazier, B. and Gautié, J. (2009) The Transitional Labour Markets Approach: Theory, History and Future Research Agenda. Document de Travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
http://ces.univ-paris1.fr/cesdp/CES-docs.htm

[31]   Treu, T. (2013) Le istituzioni del lavoronella Europa dellacrisi. [Work Institutions in Europe during the Economic Crisis.] Giornale di Diritto del Lavoro e di Relazioni Industriali, 4, 140.

[32]   Schmid, G. (1998) Transitional Labour Markets: A New European Employment Strategy. Discussion-Paper (FS), I, 98-206. Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung.

[33]   Ichino, P. (2015) Il lavororitrovato. [Finding a New Job.] Mondadori, Milano, 27.

[34]   Pombeni, M.L. (2010) L’orientamento professionale. [Vocational Orientation.] In: Argentero, P., Cortese, C.G. and Piccardo, C., Eds., Psicologia delle risorse umane [Human Resource Psychology], Raffello Cortina Editore, Milano, 69.

[35]   Grandori, A. (2015) 10 Tesisull’impresa. [10 Thesis on Business.] Il Mulino, Bologna, 69.

[36]   Wilthagen, T. and Tros, F. (2004) The Concept of Flexicurity: A New Approach to Regulating Employment and Labour Markets, Transfer. European Review of Labour and Research, 10, 2.
https://doi.org/10.1177/102425890401000204

[37]   ISFOL (2008) Diecianni di orientamentieuropei per l’occupazione (1997-2007). [Ten Years of European Employment Guidelines.] Rubbettino, Catanzaro, 215-220.

[38]   Ronkowski, P. (2013) Labour Market Policy Expenditure and the Structure of Unemployment. Eurostat. Statistics in Focus.
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Archive:
Labour_market_policy_expenditure&oldid=238577


[39]   Esping-Anderson, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

[40]   Giubileo, F. (2011) Uno o piùmodelli di politiche del lavoro in Europa? I servizi al lavoro in Italia, Germania, Francia, Svezia e Regno Unito. [One or More Models of Labour Policies in Europe? Work Services in Italy, Germany, France, Sweden and the United Kingdom.] Rivista del Dirittodella Sicurezza Sociale, XI, 759-777.

[41]   Treu, T. (2012) Flessibilità e tutelenellariforma del lavoro. [Flexibility and Protection in Job Reform.] WP-CSDLE “Massimo D’Antona”, IT, 155, 1-62.
http://csdle.lex.unict.it/workingpapers.aspx

[42]   Confindustria, CGIL, CISL and UIL (2016) Proposte per le politiche del lavoro (Proposals for labour policies), 1-7. Text available at:
http://www.cisl.it/

[43]   Bonoli, G. (2010) The Political Economy of Active Labour Market Policy. REC-WP, 1, 1-29. Working Papers on the Reconciliation of Work and Welfare in Europe, Edinburgh.
http://www.sps.ed.ac.uk

[44]   Peck, J. (2001) Workfare States. Guildford Press, New York.

[45]   Van Berkel, R., Casswell, D., Kupka, P. and Larsen, F. (2017) Frontline Delivery of Welfare-to-Work Policies in Europe. Routledge, New York.

[46]   Sartori A. (2013) Servizi per l’impiego e politichedell’occupazione in Europa. Idee e modelli per l’Italia. [Employment Services and Employment Policy in Europe. Ideas and Models for Italy.] Maggioli, Rimini.

[47]   Forrier, A. and Sels, L. (2003) The Concept Employability: A Complex Mosaic. Human Resources Development and Management, 3, 102-124.
https://doi.org/10.1504/IJHRDM.2003.002414

[48]   McQuaid, R.W. and Lindsay, C. (2005) The Concept of Employability. Urban Studies, 42, 197-219.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0042098042000316100

[49]   Sommer, J. and Rosenthal P. (2012) Active Labour Market Policy and Direct Job Creation in Germany: Achievements, Challenges, and Pitfalls. Local Economy, 27, 494-501.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0269094212445536

[50]   Manzolini, L. (1984) Economia e organizzazione delle transazioni di lavoro in impresa. [Economics and Organization of Labour Relations in Business.] Giuffrè, Milano, 15.

[51]   Reyneri, E. (2011) Sociologia del mercato del lavoro. [Labour Market Sociology.] Il Mulino, Bologna, 144.

[52]   Alaimo, A. (2015) Ricollocazione dei disoccupati e politicheattive del lavoro. Promesse e premesse di security nel Job Act del Governo Renzi. [Relocation of Unemployed Workers and Active Labour Policies. Promises and Job Security Premises in the Renzi Government’s Jobs Act.] WP-CSDLE “Massimo D’Antona”, 249, 1-24, Note 13.

[53]   FORMEZ (2012) Osservatorisulmercato del lavoro locale. [Local Labour Markets Reports.] Cangemi, Roma.

[54]   Ales, E. (2012) The Italian Reform of the Labour Market in a Growth Perspective. European Labour Law Journal, 3, 70-85.
https://doi.org/10.1177/201395251200300106

[55]   Garilli, A. (2014) Occupazione e diritto del lavoro. Le politiche del lavoro del governo Renzi. [Employment and Labor Law. The Policies of the Government of Renzi.] WP-CSDLE “Massimo D’Antona”, 226, 1-17.
http://www.csdle.lex.unict.it

[56]   ISFOL (2008) Diecianni di orientamentieuropei per l’occupazione (1997-2007). [Ten Years of European Employment Guidelines.] Rubbettino, Catanzaro, 216.

[57]   ISFOL (2016) I canali di intermediazione e iservizi per illavoro. [Intermediaries and Job Services.] Collana Research Paper, 31, 52.
http://www.isfol.it

[58]   Giubileo, F. and Marocco, M. (2012) Servizi per l’impiego, non bastanoilivelliessenziali. [Basic Employment Services Are Not Enough.]
http://www.lavoce.it

[59]   Dell’Aringa C. (2016) Le politicheattive del lavoronellariforma. [Active Labour Policies in Reform.] NuoviLavori, 180, 1-3.
http://www.nuovi-lavori.it/

[60]   Fava, G. (2017) Politicheattive del lavoro. Il punto ad oggi. [Active Labour Policies. The Current Situation.] Direzione del Personale, 180, 56-58.

[61]   Casadei, C. Tagliati 2600 dipendenti, sarannoaccantonati 550 milioni (2,600 workers dismissed, 550 million euros allocated). Il Sole24Ore of 26 October 2016.

[62]   Telecom Spa (2016) Assemblea in data 25 maggio 2016. Domande pre-assembleari (Shareholders’ Meeting on May 25, 2016. Pre-Meeting Questions), 1-21. Text available at:
http://www.telecomitalia.com

[63]   Treu, T., Ed. (2013) Employability per persone e imprese. Percorsi di outplacement. [Employability for People and Businesses. Outplacement Paths.] Guerini e Associati, Milano, 93.

[64]   Bollérot, P. (2002) Labour Shortages and Employability: A European and International Approach. International Social Security Review, 55, 19-38.
https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-246X.00130

[65]   INTOO (2011) Outplacement. Testimonianze e Prospettive. [Outplacement. Testimonies and Perspectives.] Panorama Economy, Milano.

[66]   Varesi, P. and Fagnoni, S. (2013) Responsabilizzazione dell’impresa nei processi di ricollocazione del personale eccedente. [Business Responsibility in the Redundant Staff Relocation Processes.] In: Treu, T., Ed., Employability per persone e imprese. Percorsi di outplacement [Employability for People and Businesses. Outplacement Paths], Guerini e Associati, Milano.

[67]   http://www.aiso-outplacement.it

[68]   Association of Career Firms Europe (ACF-Europe), Survey (2016) HR Decision Makers Value Outplacement Services: Motives, Expectations and Trends.
http://www.acf-europe.org

[69]   Calmfors, L., Forslund, A. and Hemstrom, M. (2001) Does Active Labour Market Policy Work? Lesson from the Swedish Experiences. Swedish Economic Policy Review, 85, 61-124.

[70]   Mortensen, D. and Pissarides, C. (1994) Job Creation and Job Destruction in the Theory of Unemployment. The Review of Economic Studies, 61, 397-415.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2297896

[71]   ANPAL (2017) Guida Incentivi alle assunzioni e allacreazioned’impresa. [Incentives Guide to Hiring and the Creation of Enterprise.]
http://www.anpal.gov.it

 
 
Top