AS  Vol.8 No.10 , October 2017
Intercropping Empower Reduces Insect Pests and Increases Biodiversity in Agro-Ecosystem
Currently insect pest management solely depends on chemical pesticide that continuously affects on environment, biodiversity, animal as well as human health. Outbreak of secondary insect pest is also the cost of pesticide use in field leading crop more vulnerable to more pests. These negative impacts of pesticides have provoked growing interest in the adoption of multi-function agricultural biodiversity that promote pest management, creating interesting challenge for traditional approaches to regulatory compliance. To address multi-function agricultural practice, we tested several intercropping systems with mustard and their effect on pest management. Our results revealed that intercropping systems mustard with onion, garlic, radhuni and coriander significantly reduced pest population over sole crop. However, intercropping mustard with wheat and gram increased pest population in mustard field. This result indicated that all crops are not suitable for intercropping system. Among the tested intercropping systems, mustard with onion and coriander significantly reduced branch and flower infestation and increased pod formation per plant. These four intercropping systems did not significantly affect on honeybee pollinator which are crucial for mustard crop yield. A significant linear relationship was also found between honeybee population and pod formation. Our results indicate that suitable intercropping system can be a potential multi-functional agricultural practice for pest management in mustard crop.
Cite this paper: Afrin, S. , Latif, A. , Banu, N. , Kabir, M. , Haque, S. , Ahmed, M. , Tonu, N. and Ali, M. (2017) Intercropping Empower Reduces Insect Pests and Increases Biodiversity in Agro-Ecosystem. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 1120-1134. doi: 10.4236/as.2017.810082.

[1]   Boomiraj, K., Chakrabarti, B., Aggarwal, P.K., Choudhary, R. and Chander, S. (2010) Assessing the Vulnerability of Indian Mustard to Climate Change. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 138, 265-273.

[2]   Miah, M.A.M., Afroz, S., Rashid, M.A. and Shiblee, S.A.M. (2015) Factors Affecting the Adoption of Improved Varieties of Mustard Cultivation in Some Selected Sites of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 40, 363-379.

[3]   BBS (2016) Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics of Bangladesh 2014. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

[4]   Mallik, M.S.A. (2013) Quality Seed Production of Oilseed Crops: An Overview. Paper Presented in the Workshop on “Modern Techniques for Quality Seed Production of Oilseed Crops”. Oilseed Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur.

[5]   Bakhetia, D.R.C. and Sekhon, B.S. (1989) Insect-Pests and Their Management in Rapeseed-Mustard. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 6, 269-299.

[6]   Das (2002) Ecology and Diversity of Agricultural Crop Infesting Aphid (Homptera; Aphidae) in Bangladesh. Journal of Aphidology, 16, 51-57.

[7]   Saho, S.K. (2012) Incidence and Management of Mustard Aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach) in West Bengal. Plant Protection Science Journal, 4, 20-26.

[8]   Awasthi, V.B. (2002) Introduction to General and Applied Entomology. Scientific Publisher, Jodhpur, 266-271.

[9]   Singh, P.K. and Premchand (1995) Yield Loss due to Mustard Aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in Eastern Bihar Plateau. Journal of Applied Zoology Research, 6, 97-100.

[10]   Lopes, T., Hatt, S., Xu, Q., Chen, J., Liu, Y. and Francis, F. (2016) Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Based Intercropping Systems for Biological Pest Control. Pest Management Science, 72, 2193-2202.

[11]   Krebs, J.R., Wilson, J.D., Bradbury, R.B. and Siriwardena, G.M. (1999) The Second Silent Spring? Nature, 400, 611-612.

[12]   Gibbons, D., Morrissey, C. and Mineau, P. (2015) A Review of the Direct and Indirect Effects of Neonicotinoids and Fipronil on Vertebrate Wildlife. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 103-118.

[13]   Baldi, I., Cordier, S., Coumoul, X., Elbaz, A., Gamet-Payrastre, L., Le Bailly, P., et al. (2013) Pesticides: Effets surla santé. INSERM, Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale, Paris.

[14]   Jeyasankar, A. (2012) Antifeedant, Insecticidal and Growth Inhibitory Activities of Selected Plant Oils on Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 2, 347-351.

[15]   Kremen, C., Iles, A. and Bacon, C. (2012) Diversified Farming Systems: An Agroecological, Systems-Based Alternative to Modern Industrial Agriculture. Ecology and Society, 17, 44.

[16]   Malézieux, E. (2012) Designing Cropping Systems from Nature. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 32, 15-29.

[17]   Altieri, M.A. and Rosset, P. (1996) Agroecology and the Conversion of Large-Scale Conventional Systems to Sustainable Management. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 50, 165-185.

[18]   Zhang, L., van der Werf, W., Zhang, S., Li, B. and Spiertz, J.H.J. (2007) Growth, Yield and Quality of Wheat and Cotton in Relay Strip Intercropping Systems. Field Crops Research, 103, 178-188.

[19]   Costanzo, A. and Bàrberi, P. (2014) Functional Agrobiodiversity and Agroecosystem Services in Sustainable Wheat Production. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34, 327-348.

[20]   Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Ambus, P. and Jensen, E.S. (2001) Interspecific Competition, N Use and Interference with Weeds in Pea-Barley Intercropping. Field Crops Research, 70, 101-109.

[21]   Malézieux, E., Crozat, Y., Dupraz, C., Laurans, M., Makowski, D. and Ozier-Lafontaine, H. (2009) Mixing Plant Species in Cropping Systems: Concepts, Tools and Models. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 29, 43-62.

[22]   Poggio, S.L. (2005) Structure of Weed Communities Occurring in Monoculture and Intercropping of Field Pea and Barley. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 109, 48-58.

[23]   Rao, M.S., Rama Rao, C.A., Srinivas, K., Pratibha, G., Vidya Sekhar, S.M., Sree Vani, G. and Rizk, A.M. (2012) Effect of Strip-Management on the Population of the Aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch and Its Associated Predators by Intercropping Faba bean, Vicia faba L. with Coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 21, 81-87.

[24]   Baliddawa, C.W. (1985) Plant Species Diversity and Crop Pest Control. An Analytical Review. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 6, 479-487.

[25]   Baidoo, P.K., Mochiah, M.B. and Apusiga, K. (2012) Onion as a Pest Control Intercrop in Organic Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Production System in Ghana. Sustainable Agriculture Research, 1.

[26]   Sharaby, A., Abdel-Rahman, H. and Sabry, S. (2015) Moawad1 Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation. Ecologia Balkanica, 7, 87-92.

[27]   Sulvai, F., Chaúque, B.J.M. and Macuvele, D.L.P. (2016) Intercropping of Lettuce and Onion Controls Caterpillar Thread, Agrotis ípsilon Major Insect Pest of Lettuce. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture, 3, 28.

[28]   Kahn, B. (2010) Intercropping for Field Production of Peppers. Horticulture Technology, 20, 530-532.

[29]   Konar, A., Singh, N.J. and Paul, R. (2010) Influence of Intercropping on Population Dynamics of Major Insect Pests and Vectors of Potato. Journal of Entomological Research, 3, 151-154.

[30]   Degri, M.M., Mailafiya, D.M. and Mshelia, J.S. (2014) Effect of Intercropping Pattern on Stem Borer Infestation in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) Grown in the Nigerian Sudan Savannah. Advances in Entomology, 2, 81-86.

[31]   Pimentel, D., Hepperly, P., Hanson, J., Douds, D. and Seidel, R. (2005) Environmental, Energetic, and Economic Comparisons of Organic and Conventional Farming Systems. Bioscience, 55, 7-15.

[32]   Vaiyapuri, K., Amanullah, M.M., Rajendran, K. and Sathyamoorthi, K. (2010) Intercropping Unconventional Green Manures in Cotton: An Organic Approach for Multiple Benefits: A Review. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 9, 223-226.

[33]   Khan, Z.R., Chiliswa, P., Ampong-Nyarko, K., Smart, L.E., Polaszek, A., Wandera, J. and Mulaa, M.A. (1997) Utilisation of Wild Gramineous Plants for the Management of Cereal Stemborers in Africa. Insect Science and Its Application, 17, 143-150.

[34]   Landolt, P.J., Hofstetter, R.W. and Biddick, L.L. (1999) Plant Essential Oils as Arrestants and Repellents for neonate Larvae of the Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Environmental Entomology, 28, 954-960.

[35]   Song, B., Tang, G., Sang, X., Zhang, J., Yao, Y. and Wiggins, N. (2013) Intercropping with Aromatic Plants Hindered the Occurrence of Aphis citricola in an Apple Orchard System by Shifting Predator-Prey Abundances. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3, 381-395.

[36]   Letourneau, D.K., Armbrecht, I., Rivera, B.S., Lerma, J.M., Carmona, E.J. and Daza, M.C. (2011) Does Plant Diversity Benefit Agroecosystems? A Synthetic Review. Ecological Applications, 21, 9-21.

[37]   Dassou, A.G. and Tixier, P. (2016) Response of Pest Control by Generalist Predators to Local-Scale Plant Diversity: A Meta-Analysis. Ecology Evolution, 6, 1143-1153.

[38]   Parker, J.E., Rodriguez-Saona, C., Hamilton, G.C. and Snyder, W.E. (2013) Companion Planting and Insect Pest Control. INTECH Open Access Publisher.

[39]   Shalaby, S. and Fouad, A.H. (2016) Effect of Intercropping Agroecosystem on the Population of Black Legume Aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch and Yield of Faba Bean Crop. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 4, 1367-1371.

[40]   Mann, R.S., Mann, R.S., Rouseff, R.L., Rouseff, R.L., Smoot, J.M., Castle, W.S. and Stelinski, L.L. (2011) Sulfur Volatiles from Allium spp. Affect Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), Response to Citrus Volatiles. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 101, 89-97.

[41]   Malschi, D., Ivas, A.D. and Kadar, R. (2013) Integrated Management of Wheat Aphids and Leafhoppers: Suitable Control Methods in Transylvania. Romanian Agricultural Research, No. 30, 317-328.

[42]   Dhaliwal, G.S. and Arora, R. (1996) Principles of Insect Pest Management. National Agriculture. Technology Information Centre, Ludhiana.

[43]   Debra, K.R. and Misheck, D. (2014) Onion (Allium cepa) and Garlic (Allium sativum) as Pest Control Intercrops in Cabbage Based Intercrop Systems in Zimbabwe. ISO 690.

[44]   Zhou, H.B., Chen, J.L., Yong, L.I.U., Francis, F., Haubruge, E., Bragard, C., Sun, J. and Cheng, D.F. (2013) Influence of Garlic Intercropping or Active Emitted Volatiles in Releasers on Aphid and Related Beneficial in Wheat Fields in China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 12, 467-473.

[45]   Saidi, M. and Itulya, F.M. (2006) Effect of Intercropping Collard with Beans or Onions on Aphid Populations and Yields of Collard under High Altitude Conditions in Kenya. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7, 56-66.

[46]   Wang, W.L., Liu, Y., Ji, X.L., Wang, G. and Zhou, H.B. (2008) Effects of Wheat-Oilseed Rape Intercropping or Wheat-Garlic Intercropping on Population Dynamics of Sitobion avenae and Its Main Natural Enemies. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 19, 1331-1336.

[47]   Cai, H.J., Li, S.Y., Ryall, K., You, M.S. and Lin, S. (2011) Effects of Intercropping of Garlic or Lettuce with Chinese Cabbage on the Development of Larvae and Pupae of diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6, 3609-3615.

[48]   Xiao, X., Cheng, Z., Meng, H., Khan, M.A. and Li, H. (2012) Intercropping with Garlic Alleviated Continuous Cropping Obstacle of Cucumber in Plastic Tunnel. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B—Soil & Plant Science, 62, 696-705.

[49]   Karavina, C., Mandumbu, R., Zivenge, E. and Munetsi, T. (2014) Use of Garlic (Allium sativum) as a Repellent Crop to Control Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) in Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata). Journal of Agricultural Research, 52, 4.

[50]   Tiwari, M.C.P. and Goel, R. (2005) Effect of Intercropping on the Population, Dynamics of Insect Pests and Yield of Mustard. Shashpa, New Delhi, 12, 106-110.

[51]   Wszelaki, A. (2014) Trap Crops, Intercropping and Companion Planting: The University of Tennessee. Institute of Agriculture. Department of Plant Sciences Extension W235-F.