JBM  Vol.5 No.9 , September 2017
Enhanced Public Health Surveillance for the Sixth Worldwide Uchinanchu Festival Conducted by the Okinawa Prefectural Government, Japan
Abstract: Objective: The Okinawa prefectural government conducted enhanced surveillance for the Sixth Worldwide Uchinanchu Festival, with participation of more than 5300 visitors from abroad, many of whom were Okinawan or of Okinawan descent, for early detection of Zika virus disease and other potential public health threat outbreaks. Method: Enhanced surveillance conducted from 12 October through 13 November involved four surveillance systems, (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance system ((N)SASSy), Prescription Surveillance (PS), and Official Syndromic Surveillance (OSS), each of them operates routinely, in addition to case-based and sentinel surveillance under the Infectious Diseases Control Law as Official National Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (ONSID). This enhanced surveillance was conducted for analysis and evaluation, with intensive information sharing among concerned parties. Result: We performed the enhanced surveillance for 33 days from 12 October through 13 November. Information from enhanced surveillance was analyzed and evaluated, and eventually summarized as a daily report. There has been one rubella case at an elementary school in Okinawa City on 20 October and a measles case at an elementary school in Uruma City on 2 November. Those two cases were registered into (N)SASSy on a timely basis. The public health center investigated them quickly, and the measles case was denied later because symptoms did not satisfy with case definition. Discussion: We regard enhanced surveillance as useful to confirm events that might demand a public health response. Moreover, the related including public health centers or medical institutions confirmed the situation as valuable for the administrative structure. However, because almost all (nursery) schools or pharmacies are closed during successive holidays, outbreaks that occur on such days cannot be recognized on a timely basis. More sensitive surveillance for such days, with better preparations for ambulance transfer and at emergency departments in hospitals remains as a challenge for future work.
Cite this paper: Yamakawa, M. , Yamauchi, M. , Nidaira, M. , Azuma, T. , Nakasone, T. , Ando, F. , Hayamizu, T. , Kinjo, S. and Nakamura, Y. (2017) Enhanced Public Health Surveillance for the Sixth Worldwide Uchinanchu Festival Conducted by the Okinawa Prefectural Government, Japan. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 5, 106-115. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2017.59010.

[1]   WHO, WHO Director-General Summarizes the Outcome of the Emergency Committee regarding Clusters of Microcephaly and Guillain-Barré Syndrome. 2016.

[2]   Song, B.H., Yun, S.I., Woolley, M. and Lee, Y.M. (2017) Zika Virus: History, Epidemiology, Transmission, and Clinical Presentation. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 308, 50-64.

[3]   Dafni, U.G., Tsiodras, S., Panagiotakos, D., et al. (2004) Algorithm for Statistical Detection of Peaks—Syndromic Surveillance System for the Athens 2004 Olympic Games. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53, 86-94.

[4]   Jorm, L.R., Thackway, S.V., Churches, T.R., et al. (2003) Watching the Games: Public Health Surveillance for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57, 102-108.

[5]   Severi, E., Heinsbroek, E., Watson, C., et al. (2012) Infectious Disease Surveillance for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Eurosurveillance, 17, pii: 20232.

[6]   Osaka, K., Takahashi, H. and Ohyama, T. (2002) Testing a Symptom-Based Surveillance System at High-Profile Gatherings as a Preparatory Measure for Bioterrorism. Epidemiology & Infection, 129, 429-434. (In Japanese)

[7]   Matsui, T., Takahashi, H., Ohyama, T., et al. (2002) An Evaluation of Syndromic Surveillance for the G8 Summit in Miyazaki and Fukuoka, 2000. Kansenshogaku Zasshi, 76, 161-166. (In Japanese)

[8]   Suzuki, S., Ohyama, T., Taniguchi, K., et al. (2003) Syndromic Surveillance of Infectious Diseases during the World Cup Football Games Held in Korea and Japan, May-July 2002. Infectious Agents Surveillance Report, 24, 37-38. (In Japanese)

[9]   Kamiya, N., Ikeda, K., Nadaoka, Y., et al. (2002) The Syndrome Surveillance during FIFA 2002 World Cup TM. Annual Report of the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health, 53, 287-292. (In Japanese)

[10]   Ohkusa, Y., Yamaguchi, R., Sugiura, H., et al. (2009) 2008 G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit Meeting Syndrome Surveillance. Kansenshogaku Zasshi, 83, 236-244. (In Japanese)

[11]   Ohkusa, Y., Sugawara, T., Masuda, K., et al. (2010) Enhanced Surveillance for US Presidential Visit to Japan. Kansenshogaku Zasshi, 84, 708-713. (In Japanese)

[12]   Inaba, S., Ohkusa, Y., Sugawara, T., et al. (2012) Operation and Evaluation of Enhanced Surveillance for COP10 at Nagoya in 2010. Japanese Journal of Disaster Medicine, 17, 326-333. (In Japanese)

[13]   Sugishita, Y., Ohkusa, Y., Sugawara, T., et al. (2013) Enhanced Syndromic Surveillance for the Fourth Japan-China-South Korea Trilateral Summit 2011. Journal of Bioterrorism and Biodefense, 4, 1.

[14]   Shimatani, N., Sugishita, Y., Sugawara, T., et al. (2015) Enhanced Surveillance for Sports Festival in Tokyo 2013: Preparation for Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 68, 288-295.

[15]   Hutwagner, L., Thompson, W., Seeman, G.M., et al. (2003) The Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS). Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 80, i89-i96.

[16]   Olson, D.R., Heffernan, R.T., Paladini, M., Konty, K., Weiss, D. and Mostashari, F. (2007) Monitoring the Impact of Influenza by Age: Emergency Department Fever and Respiratory Complaint Surveillance in New York City. PLOS Medicine, 4, e247.