JBM  Vol.5 No.9 , September 2017
Pattern Recognition Methods Combined with Raman Spectra Applied to Distinguish Serums from Lung Cancer Patients and Healthy People
Abstract: Raman spectroscopy was used to distinguish the serums from lung cancer patients and healthy people, through spectral pretreatment method combined with pattern recognition methods including principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), un-correlated linear discriminant analysis (ULDA), etc. Through the comparisons of the results, it can be found that ULDA and LDA combined with multiple scatter correction (MSC) pretreatment method successfully distinguish the patients of lung cancer and healthy people. The method has academic significance and promising clinical application value.
Cite this paper: Li, Y. , Jia, M. , Zeng, X. , Huang, K. and Bai, Z. (2017) Pattern Recognition Methods Combined with Raman Spectra Applied to Distinguish Serums from Lung Cancer Patients and Healthy People. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 5, 95-105. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2017.59009.

[1]   Feller, A., Schmidlin, K., Bordoni, A., Bouchardy, C., Bulliard, J.L., Camey, B., et al. (2017) Socioeconomic and Demographic Disparities in Breast Cancer Stage at Presentation and Survival: A Swiss Population-Based Study. International Journal of Cancer, 141, 1529-1539.

[2]   Luo, G., Zhang, Y., Guo, P., Wang, L., Huang, Y. and Li, K. (2017) Global Patterns and Trends in Stomach Cancer Incidence: Age, Period and Birth Cohort Analysis. International Journal of Cancer, 141, 1333-1344.

[3]   Wada, T., Fujiwara, H., Morita, S., Fukagawa, T. and Katai, H. (2017) Incidence of and Risk Factors for Preoperative Deep Venous Thrombosis in Patients Undergoing Gastric Cancer Surgery. Gastric Cancer, 20, 872-877.

[4]   Li, L., Tian, T. and Zhang, X. (2017) The Impact of Radiation on the Development of Lung Cancer. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 428, 147-152.

[5]   Evelyne, L., Cantrelle, F.X., Mesotten, L., Reekmans, G., Bervoets, L., Vanhove, K., et al. (2017) Metabolic Phenotyping of Human Plasma by 1 H-Nmr at High and Medium Magnetic Field Strengths: A Case Study for Lung Cancer. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 55, 706-713.

[6]   Karadzic, M.Z., Jevric, L.R., Mandic, A.I., et al. (2017) Chemometrics Approach Based on Chromatographic Behavior, in Silico Characterization and Molecular Docking Study of Steroid Analogs with Biomedical Importance. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 105, 71-81.

[7]   Zhang, X., Lu, S., Liao, Y. and Zhang, Z. (2017) Simultaneous Determination of Amino Acid Mixtures in Cereal by Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy and Chemometrics. Chemometrics & Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 164, 8-15.

[8]   Wu, L., Liang, W., Chen, W., et al. (2017) Screening and Analysis of the Marker Components in Ganoderma Lucidum by HPLC and HPLC-MSn with the Aid of Chemometrics. Molecules, 22, 584.

[9]   Siqueira, L.F.S., Júnior, R.F.A., Araújo, A.A.D., et al. (2017) LDA vs. QDA for FT-MIR Prostate Cancer Tissue Classification. Chemometrics & Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 162, 123-129.

[10]   Wu, Y.X., Liang, P., Dong, Q.M., Bai, Y., Yu, Z., Huang, J., et al. (2017) Design of a Silver Nanoparticle for Sensitive Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection of Carmine Dye. Food Chemistry, 237, 974-980.

[11]   Nedeljkovic, A., Tomasevic, I., Miocinovic, J. and Pudja, P. (2017) Feasibility of Discrimination of Dairy Creams and Cream-Like Analogues using Raman Spectroscopy and Chemometric Analysis. Food Chemistry, 232, 487-492.

[12]   Feng, H., Jr, B.R., Anderson, C.A. and Igne, B. (2017) Investigation of the Sensitivity of Transmission Raman Spectroscopy for Polymorph Detection in Pharmaceutical Tablets. Applied Spectroscopy, 71, 1856-1867.

[13]   Lasch, P., Beekes, M., Schmitt, J. and Naumann, D. (2007) Detection of Preclinical Scrapie from Serum by Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics. Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387, 1791.

[14]   Chen, P.F., Liu, L.Y., Wang, J.H., Shen, T., Lu, A.X. and Zhao, C.J. (2008) Real-Time Analysis of Soil n and p with near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, 28, 295.

[15]   Novaes, C.G., Romao, I.L.D.S., Santos, B.G., Ribeiro, J.P., Bezerra, M.A. and Silva, E.G.P.D. (2017) Screening of Passiflora L. Mineral Content using Principal Component Analysis and Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps. Food Chemistry, 233, 507-513.

[16]   Ping, W., Hui, S., Lv, H.T., Sun, W.J., Ye, Y., Ying, H., et al. (2010) Thyroxine and Reserpine-Induced Changes in Metabolic Profiles of Rat Urine and the Therapeutic Effect of liu wei di huang wan Detected by Uplc-Hdms. Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis, 53, 631-645.

[17]   Yang, Z., Li, Q., Liu, W., Ma, Y. and Cheng, M. (2016) Dual Graph Regularized Nmf Model for Social Event Detection from Flickr Data. World Wide Web, 20, 995-1015.

[18]   Junker, H., Venz, S., Zimmermann, U., Thiele, A., Scharf, C. and Walther, R. (2011) Stage-Related Alterations in Renal Cell Carcinoma—Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis by 2d-Dige and Protein Network Analysis. PLoS ONE, 6, e21867.

[19]   Wei, F., Furihata, K., Koda, M., Hu, F., Kato, R., Miyakawa, T., et al. (2012) (13) c Nmr-Based Metabolomics for the Classification of Green Coffee Beans According to Variety and Origin. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 60, 10118.

[20]   Paulo, J.M.D., Barros, J.E.M. and Barbeira, P.J.S. (2014) Differentiation of Gasoline Samples using Flame Emission Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminate Analysis. Energy & Fuels, 28, 4355-4361.

[21]   Ye, J. (2005) Characterization of a Family of Algorithms for Generalized Discriminant Analysis on Undersampled Problems. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 6, 483-502.

[22]   Madsen, R., Lundstedt, T. and Trygg, J. (2010) Chemometrics in Metabolomics—A Review in Human Disease Diagnosis. Analytica Chimica Acta, 659, 23.

[23]   Sun, S., Xie, X. and Yang, M. (2016) Multiview Uncorrelated Discriminant Analysis. IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, 46, 3272-3284.

[24]   Bellisola, G. and Sorio, C. (2012) Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy in Cancer Research and Diagnosis. American Journal of Cancer Research, 2, 1-21.

[25]   Liu, L., Cozzolino, D., Cynkar, W.U., Dambergs, R.G., Janik, L., O’Neill, B.K., et al. (2008) Preliminary Study on the Application of Visible-Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics to Classify Riesling Wines from Different Countries. Food Chemistry, 106, 781-786.

[26]   Saudland, A., Wagner, J., Nielsen, J.P., Munck, L., Norgaard, L. and Engelsen, S.B. (2000) Interval Partial Least-Squares Regression (ipls): A Comparative Chemometric Study with an Example from Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Applied Spectroscopy, 54, 413-419.

[27]   Stone, N., Kendall, C., Shepherd, N., Crow, P. and Barr, H. (2002) Near-Infrared Raman Spectroscopy for the Classification of Epithelial Pre-Cancers and Cancers. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 33, 564-573.

[28]   Zeng, Q., Guo, L., Li, X., He, C., Shen, M., Li, K., et al. (2015) Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy using Laser Pulses Delivered by Optical Fibers for Analyzing mn and ti Elements in Pig Iron. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 30, 403-409.

[29]   Rodriguez, S.B., Thornton, M.A. and Thornton, R.J. (2017) Discrimination of Wine Lactic Acid Bacteria by Raman Spectroscopy. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 44, 1167-1175.

[30]   Matsumoto, Y., Yoshiura, R. and Honma, K. (2017) Identification of Crystalline Structures in Jet-Cooled Acetylene Large Clusters Studied by Two-Dimensional Correlation Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Chemical Physics, 147, 5453-5457.

[31]   Heinzmann, S.S., Brown, I.J., Chan, Q., Bictash, M., Dumas, M.E., Kochhar, S., et al. (2010) Metabolic Profiling Strategy for Discovery of Nutritional Biomarkers: Proline Betaine as a Marker of Citrus Consumption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 92, 436-443.

[32]   Zeng, M., Liang, Y., Li, H., Wang, B. and Chen, X. (2011) A Metabolic Profiling Strategy for Biomarker Screening by gc-ms Combined with Multivariate Resolution Method and Monte carlo pls-da. Analytical Methods, 3, 438-445.

[33]   Yuan, D., Liang, Y., Yi, L., Xu, Q. and Kvalheim, O.M. (2008) Uncorrelated Linear Discriminant Analysis (ulda): A Powerful Tool for Exploration of Metabolomics Data. Chemometrics & Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 93, 70-79.