JWARP  Vol.9 No.10 , September 2017
Application of Geophysical Logging and Straddle Packers for the Investigation of a Fractured Aquifer in a Contaminated Area by Chlorinated Solvents in Sao Paulo State, Brazil
Abstract: The investigation of contaminated areas in fractured aquifers represents a great technical challenge, due to the frequent conditions of heterogeneity and anisotropy of these environments, which often make it difficult to identify and predict pathways of subsurface contamination. This work aims to contribute to the development of this subject, through the presentation of the results of an investigation in which geophysical logging tools and straddle packers were used, which allowed the development of a more suitable hydrogeological conceptual model of the study area. Two boreholes were drilled and geophysical logging (gamma, caliper and high resolution acoustic televiewer) were used for the geological-structural characterization of the aquifer. Heatpulse flowmeter and straddle packers were then used to obtain data on hydraulic potentials and flows and for the collection of discrete water samples for chemical analysis. Two types of gneiss rocks were identified below the weathering zone (thickness >30 m), one with predominance of mafic bands, more weathered and with a higher fracture density, up to 65 m, and another deeper one, with the predominance of felsic bands. Seven groups of fractures were defined, being those of Group 1, with low dip angles, the most frequent and important for flow until 65 m, and Group 2 (N to NE-SW with high dips to W and NW) more frequent in deeper felsic gneisses. Downward hydraulic potentials were identified down to 65 m and upward potentials from the bottom up to 65 m. A hydraulic test allowed identifying the occurrence of hydraulic connection between the shallow weathering zone and the underlying fractured aquifer.
Cite this paper: Fanti, A. , Bertolo, R. , Vogado, F. , Cagnon, F. and Queiroz, A. (2017) Application of Geophysical Logging and Straddle Packers for the Investigation of a Fractured Aquifer in a Contaminated Area by Chlorinated Solvents in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 9, 1145-1168. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.910075.

[1]   Parker, B. (2007) Investigating Contaminated Sites on Fractured Rock using the DFN Approach. Proceedings at the USEPA/NGWA Fractured Rock Conference: State of the Science and Measuring Success in Remediation, Maine, 150-168.

[2]   Parker, B., Cherry, J. and Chapman, S. (2012) Discrete Fracture Network Approach for Studying Contamination in Fractured Rock. AQUA mundi, Am06052, 101-116.

[3]   Keys, S. (1990) Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey. USGS Report, 165 p.

[4]   Lane, J. (2002) An Integrated Geophysical and Hydraulic Investigation to Characterize a Fractured-Rock Aquifer. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Norwalk, 97 p.

[5]   Lau, J., Auger, L. and Bisson, J. (1987) Subsurface Fracture Surveys using a Borehole Television Camera and Acoustic Televiewer: Reply. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 24, 499-508.

[6]   Cruden, D. (1988) Subsurface Fracture Surveys using a Borehole Television Camera and Acoustic Televierwer: Discussion. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 25, 843.

[7]   Morin, R., Godin, R., Nastev, M. and Rouleau, A. (2007) Hydrogeologic Controls Imposed by Mechanical Stratigraphy in Layered Rocks of the Chateauguay River Basin, a US-Canada Transborder Aquifer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, B04403.

[8]   Robinson, D., Binley, A., Crook, N. and Slater, L. (2008) Advancing Process-Based Watershed Hydrological Research using near Surface Geophysics: A Vision for, and Review of, Electrical and Magnetic Geophysical Methods. Hydrological Process, 22, 3604-3635.

[9]   Francese, R., Mazzarini, F., Bistacchi, A., Morelli, G., Pasquare, G., Praticelli, N., Robain, H., Wardel, N. and Zaja, A. (2009) A Structural and Geophysical Approach to the Study of Fractured Aquifers in the Scansano-Magliano in Toscana Ridge, Southern Tuscany, Italy. Hydrogeology Journal, 17, 1233-1246.

[10]   Paillet, F. (1995) Using Borehole Flow Logging to Optimize Hydraulic Test Procedures in Heterogeneous Fractured Aquifers. Hydrogeology Journal, 3, 4-20.

[11]   Day-Lewis, F., Johnson, C., Paillet, F. and Halford, K. (2011) A Computer Program for Flow-Log Analysis of Single Holes (FLASH). Groundwater, 49, 926-931.

[12]   Johnson, C., Mondazzi, R. and Joesten, P. (2009) Borehole Geophysical Investigation of a Formerly Used Defense Site, Machiasport, Maine, 2003-2006. USGS Scientific Investigations Report 5120, 87 p.

[13]   Lapcevic, P. (1988) Results of Borehole Packer Tests at the Ville Mercier Groundwater Treatment Site. NWRI Contribution 88, RRB-88-92. National Water Research Institute Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, 30 p.

[14]   Novakowski, K., Bickerton, G., Lapcevic, P.V.J. and Ross, N. (2006) Measurements of Groundwater Velocity in Discrete Rock Fractures. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 82, 44-60.

[15]   Wahnfried, I. (2010) Hydrogeologycal Conceptual Model of the Serra GeralAquitard and Guarani Aquifer in Ribeir ãoPreto, São Paulo, Brazil. Doctoral Thesis, Institute of Geosciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo. (In Portuguese)

[16]   Quinn, P., Parker, B. and Cherry, J. (2011) Using Constant Head Step Tests to Determine Hydraulic Apertures in Fractured Rock. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 126, 85-99.

[17]   Quinn, P., Cherry, J. and Parker, B. (2011) Quantification of Non-Darcian Flow Observed during Packer Testing in Fractured Sedimentary Rock. Water Resources Research, 47, 15 p.

[18]   Quinn, P., Cherry, J. and Parker, B. (2012) Hydraulic Testing using a Versatile Straddle Packer System for Improved Transmissivity Estimation in Fractured-Rock Boreholes. Hydrogeology Journal, 20, 1529-1547.

[19]   IG-SMA, InstitutoGeológico (1993) Aids of the Geological Physical Environment to the Planning of Campinas Municipality (Brazil). Technical Report, Volume II, Sao Paulo. (In Portuguese)

[20]   Almeida, F., Hassui, Y., Brito Neves, B. and Fuck, R. (1977) Structural Brazilian Provinces. Proceedings at the 8th SBG Northeast Geology Symposium, Campina Grande.

[21]   Vaz, L. (1996) Genetic Classification of Soils and Weathered Rock Horizons in Tropical Regions. Solos e Rochas, 19, 117-136. (In Portuguese)

[22]   Waterloo Brasil (2011) Geological Study and Top of Bedrock Mapping. Technical Report, Confidential, São Paulo.

[23]   Fernandes, A. (1997) Cenozoic Tectonics of the Piracicaba River Basin and Its Application to Hydrogeology. Doctoral Thesis, Institute of Geosciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo. (In Portuguese)

[24]   Pankow, J. and Cherry, J. (1996) Dense Chlorinated Solvents and Other DNAPLs in Groundwater: History, Behaviour and Remediation. Waterloo Press, Oregon, 525 p.

[25]   Kueper, B., Weathall, G., Smith, J., Leharne, S. and Lerner, D. (2003) An Illustrated Handbook of DNAPL Transport and Fate in the Subsurface. Vol. 133, R&D Publication, 67.

[26]   Terzaghi, R. (1965) Sources of Error in Joint Surveys. Géotechnique, 15, 287-304.

[27]   Pino, D. (2012) Structural Hydrogeology in the Kenogamy Uplands, Quebec, Canada. MSc Thesis, L’Université du Québec, Chicoutimi.

[28]   Hvorslev, M. (1951) Time Lag and Soil Permeability in Ground-Water Observations, Waterways Exper. Sta. Corps of Engrs, U.S. Army, Vicksburg.

[29]   Barbosa, M., Bertolo, R.A. and Hirata, R. (2017) A Method for Environmental Data Management Applied to Megasites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 9, 322-338.