A long-term goal of theoretical physics is to develop a single simple theory or model [ 1 , 2 ] that would unify the four known fundamental forces (or interactions) and give explanations for the origin and the evolution of the Universe, and other physical questions or problems, such as the origin of the gravity and mass [ 3 ], the nature of dark matter and dark energy [ 4 , 5 ], the horizon problem [ 6 ], the flatness/oldness problem [ 7 ], the strong CP problem [ 8 ], the neutrino oscillations [ 9 , 10 ], and the baryon asymmetry [ 11 - 13 ], etc. However, such a theory still does not appear.
2. The Derivation of Spiral Wave Law
It can be assumed that “Ether” or “Aether” that has been debated for more than five centuries in physics is existed based on the increasing research evidence [ 14 ], called the “universe field”, which was proposed before [ 15 ], and here I want to derive a spiral wave law according to this report. There have three distinct characters for the proposed universe field: 1) The universe field presents a spiral (helical) wavelike motion at the speed of light at the small scale [ 15 ] (Figure 1); 2) A microscopic matter is just the particular energy form of a spiral wavelike motion companying with a spin movement in the universe field, named as “spin wave packet”, which forms macroscopic objects; and 3) There exist the transformation between the universe field energy (Eu) and the matter energy (Em) in the Universe, which is mediated via electromagnetic waves.
We cannot directly assess Eu, however, we could define it when considering of energy transformation from Em to the part of Eu (pEu). Therefore, according to the energy conservation law and the mass energy formula, we can write an equation as follows:
where “c” is the speed of light and “m” is the quality of a matter. It may be more understandable to evaluate the Em by taking a photon as an example rather than a macroscopic object. If the quality of a photon is “m” (actually, m is considered as a wave packet in order to avoid arguments on whether a photon has the quality or not) and its whole momentum is Pw that includes the spiral (helical) angular momentum (Ph) and the spin momentum (Ps) (Figure 2), then
Because a photon presents a spiral wave motion at the small scale according to the assumption mentioned above, and therefore, if the linear velocity of spiral (helical) wave movement of a photon is “v”; then
where “s” is a spiral circumference, and “t” is the time for a spiral wave motion of a photon (Figure 2); then
where “r” is the radius of helix
The time for a spiral wave motion of a photon can also be determined by
where “λ” is the wavelength of spiral wave motion; then
Figure 1. Schematic drawing of the spiral (helical) wave motion of the universe field at the small scale in a four-dimensional space (x, y, z and t).
Figure 2. Schematic drawing of the spiral (helical) wave motion of a photon in the universe field for deriving a unifying mathematical equation. c, r, λ and t is the speed of light, the radius of helix, the wavelength of spiral wave motion and the time for a spiral wave motion, respectively. The blue circular spots show the wave packets of a matter such as a photon, presenting a spiral wave motion companying with the spin movement (or spin momentum).
According to the angular momentum law, then
Because for a photon, then
This is a unifying equation for the movement of a matter and its relationship to the universe field, and is defined as a “spiral wave law” (SWL). Such a mathematical equation can be used to describe the movement rules of the universe field and the matters such as the galaxies and planets, the basic particles and the electromagnetic waves both at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. In addition, the wave-particle duality of mater is unified in this mathematical equation.
For example, if Ps = 0, meaning that the spin movement or momentum of a particle such as a photon is disappeared, and consequently the particle is completely transferred into the universe energy (the universe field), then
or if λ = ct, then
These are three mathematical equations for the wave features of the university field, and the cosmic physical connotations contain: 1) The appearance of the Universe presents a shuttle shaped sphere; 2) If “r” → 0, then “λ” → 0, indicating that a singularity occurs, which may be the origin of the Universe; 3) If “c” is variable, for example “c” → 0, then “r” → 0, indicating that a black hole may be appeared under the condition of universe field collapse, in which the formed matter may just have spin movement or spin momentum, and the spiral wave movement of the universe field is disappeared there. Because the “c” value is limited (for example, ), then “r” is also limited, indicating that the Universe is bounded; and 4) The Equation (10c) describes the space-time relationship (or law). If “t” is increasing, then the space is expanding, but it could not do so forever, indicating that the accelerated expansion of the Universe may just be a local process of the cyclic motion of the Universe [ 16 ] because there exist three possibilities including the accelerating expansion (red shift), accelerating shrink (blue shift) and unaltered condition (invariant spectral feature) of the Universe based on the observation of the spectral information between the stars (Figure 3).
The macroscopic objects such as the sun and earth, etc, also present a spiral wavelike motion, and their movement characteristics including the wavelength and radius of spiral wave like motion can be determined by the mathematical Equation (9). We take the sun’s planets as examples:
The spin angular momentum of a planet can be described by as implified equation as follows:
where “I” and “ω” are the moment of inertia and the average spin angular velocity of a planet, respectively, then
Therefore, if the average radius of the revolution of a planet is considered as its radius of the spiral wave movement, then the λ of the sun’s planets can be calculated according to the other measured parameters (m, I and ω) of these planets.
It could be proposed that the wavelengths of spiral wavelike motion of the sun’s planets are identical to their wavelengths of gravitational waves, indicating that the gravity originates from the gravitational waves. In addition, the trajectory of spiral wavelike motion of the sun’s planets is curved, which may cause the precession of the sun’s planets.
Figure 3. Schematic drawing of the three possibilities of movement relationships between the stars in the Universe. Arrows indicate the movement directions of four stars (A-D). If the star B moves away the star A, then observations in A would result in redshirt effects; if the star C moves close to the star A, then would result in blue shift effects, and if the star D and A present motion synchronization, then would result in invariant spectral features. Such relationships indicate that the accelerating expansion, accelerating shrink and unaltered condition of the Universe may be existed based on the observations of spectral information.
The microscopic particles and the electromagnetic waves also present spiral wave like motions, and according to the quantum mechanics [ 17 ], the spin angular momentum of a particle can be determined by an equation as follows:
where “j” is the spin quantum number, , etc., and “h” is the Planck constant, then
This is a mathematical equation for the spiral wave movement of particles.
In this study, a unified theory has been proposed, which would unify the four known fundamental forces (or interactions) and give explanations for the origin and the evolution of the Universe. Therefore, it could be concluded that the nature of the universal gravitation is due to the interaction between the matters via the gravitational waves at the large scale, and similarly, the electromagnetic force, the strong and weak interactions hold same mechanism as gravity at the small scale. In addition, this unified theory may provide novel explanations for other physical questions or problems, such as the origin of the gravity and mass, the nature of dark matter and dark energy, the horizon problem, the flatness/oldness problem and the neutrino oscillations.
It should be particularly emphasized that the spiral wavelike motion of the sun (the origin of sun’s gravitational wave) and its action on the earth may be the causes of nature occurred climate phenomena on earth such as typhoons and hurricanes, etc., which usually present spiral wavelike motions and are related to the specific seasonal periods when the sun’s gravitational wave may generate the maximum effects on the earth. In addition, the lens effect of the propagation of light in the Universe is involved in the gravitational waves of the stars such as the sun.
This work was supported by the research team fund of South-Central University for Nationalities (XTZ15014).
Competing Financial Interests
The authors declare no competing financial interests.