Low Noise Phase CMOS Quadrature VCO with Superharmonic Coupling Using Cross-Couple Pair

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to introduce a quadrature VCO (voltage control oscillator) which applies superharmonic coupling. The presented quadrature VCO is suitable to be used, both with 2 × subharmonic mixers, as well as 4×subharmonic mixers. It would be impossible to avoid the presence of harmonics in CMOS VCO circuits. These harmonics are in general, undesirable signals which tend to accompany the desired fundamental signal. There are common-mode nodes (similar to those in the two source nodes in a cross-coupled VCO) in deferential VCO at which higher-order harmonics are present while the fundamental is absent in essence. We can make use of these second-order harmonics which are present at the common-mode nodes of two VCO in order to implement a quadrature connection between the fundamental outputs. The technique through which this is done is called superharmonic coupling. This CMOS quadrature VCO which applies active superharmonic coupling puts an excellent performance in show, with an output power –0.942 dBm for fundamental and –9.751 dBm for subharmonic, phase noise –107.2 dBc/Hz for fundamental and –114.8 dBc/Hz at a 1MHz offset. All of circuit applied are designed and simulated by ADS, 2008.

This paper aims to introduce a quadrature VCO (voltage control oscillator) which applies superharmonic coupling. The presented quadrature VCO is suitable to be used, both with 2 × subharmonic mixers, as well as 4×subharmonic mixers. It would be impossible to avoid the presence of harmonics in CMOS VCO circuits. These harmonics are in general, undesirable signals which tend to accompany the desired fundamental signal. There are common-mode nodes (similar to those in the two source nodes in a cross-coupled VCO) in deferential VCO at which higher-order harmonics are present while the fundamental is absent in essence. We can make use of these second-order harmonics which are present at the common-mode nodes of two VCO in order to implement a quadrature connection between the fundamental outputs. The technique through which this is done is called superharmonic coupling. This CMOS quadrature VCO which applies active superharmonic coupling puts an excellent performance in show, with an output power –0.942 dBm for fundamental and –9.751 dBm for subharmonic, phase noise –107.2 dBc/Hz for fundamental and –114.8 dBc/Hz at a 1MHz offset. All of circuit applied are designed and simulated by ADS, 2008.

Cite this paper

nullS. Hadianamrei, M. Sabaghi, M. Lahiji and M. Rahnama, "Low Noise Phase CMOS Quadrature VCO with Superharmonic Coupling Using Cross-Couple Pair,"*Circuits and Systems*, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 281-285. doi: 10.4236/cs.2011.24039.

nullS. Hadianamrei, M. Sabaghi, M. Lahiji and M. Rahnama, "Low Noise Phase CMOS Quadrature VCO with Superharmonic Coupling Using Cross-Couple Pair,"

References

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[2] J. Craninckx and M. S. J. Steyaert, “A Fully Integrated GaAs DCS-1800 Frequency Synthesizer,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 12, 1998, pp. 2054-2065. doi:10.1109/4.735547

[3] A. Rofougaran, J. Rael, M. Rofougaran and A. Abidi, “A 900 MHz CMOS LC-Oscillator with Quadrature Outputs,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, February 1996, pp. 392-393.

[4] P. Vancorenland and M. Steyaert, “A 1.57 GHz Fully Integated Very Low Phase Noise Quadrature VCO,” VLSI 2001 Symposium on Circuits, Digest of Technical Papers, Kyoto, 14-16 June 2011, pp. 111-114.

[5] Z. Liu, E. Skadas and R. Evans, “A 60 GHz VCO with 6 GHz Tuning Range in 130 nm Bulk CMOS,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 1, 2008, pp. 209-211.

[6] J. P. Maligeorgos and J. R. Long, “A Low-Voltage 5.1 - 5.8 GHz Imagereject Receiver with Wide Dynamic Range,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 35, No. 12, 2000, pp. 1917-1926. doi:10.1109/4.890305

[7] A. Rofougaran, et al., “A Single-Chip “A-Voltage 5.1-5.8 GHz Imagereject 900-MHz spread-Spectrum Wireless Transceiver in 1-μmm CMOS-Part I: Architecture and Transmitted Design,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 33, 1998, pp. 515-534. doi:10.1109/4.663557

[8] C. Meng, Y. W. Chang and S. C. Tseng, “4.9-GHz Low-Phase-Noise Transformer-Based Superharmonic-Coupled GaInP/GaAs HBT QVCO,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Component Letters, Vol. 16, No. 6, 2006, pp. 339-341. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2006.875624

[9] J. Cabanillas, L. Dussopt, J. Lopez-Villegas and G. Rebeiz, “A 900 MHz Low Phase Noise CMOS Quadrature Oscillator,” 2002 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Seattle, 2-4 June 2002, pp. 63-66.

[10] S. Gierkink, S. Levantino and R. Frye, C. Samori and V. Boccuzzi, “A Low-Phase-Noise 5-GHz GaAs Quadrature VCO Using Superharmonic Coupling,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 38, No. 7, 2003, pp. 1148-1154. doi:10.1109/JSSC.2003.813297

[11] X. Y. Geng and F. F. Dai,, “An x-Band Transformer-Coupled Varactor-Less Quadrature Current-Controlled Oscillator in 0.18 μm SIGE BICMOS,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 45, No. 9, 2010, pp. 1669-1677. doi:10.1109/JSSC.2010.2051266

[12] A. Thanachayanont and M. krairiksh, “Implementation of an rf CMOS Quadrature lc Voltage-Controlled Oscillator Based on the Switched Tail Transistor Topology,” World SciNet, Journal of Circuit System And Computer, Vol. 20, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1280-1285.

[13] Y. Wu, M. Ismail and H. Olsson, “An 8.7 - 13.8 GHz Transformer-Coupled Varactor-Less Quadrature VCO,” Proceeding of IEEE International Symposium Circuit and System, Geneva, May 2000, pp. 149-152.

[14] A. Tang, F. Yuan and E. Lawkrairiksh “CMOS Active Transformers and Their Applications in Voltage-Controlled Quadrature Oscillators,” Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2009, pp. 83-90. doi:10.1007/s10470-009-9318-6

[1] A. A. Abidi, “Direct-Conversion Radio Transceivers for Digital Wmmunications,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 30, No. 12, 1995, pp. 1399-1410. doi:10.1109/4.482187

[2] J. Craninckx and M. S. J. Steyaert, “A Fully Integrated GaAs DCS-1800 Frequency Synthesizer,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 33, No. 12, 1998, pp. 2054-2065. doi:10.1109/4.735547

[3] A. Rofougaran, J. Rael, M. Rofougaran and A. Abidi, “A 900 MHz CMOS LC-Oscillator with Quadrature Outputs,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, San Francisco, February 1996, pp. 392-393.

[4] P. Vancorenland and M. Steyaert, “A 1.57 GHz Fully Integated Very Low Phase Noise Quadrature VCO,” VLSI 2001 Symposium on Circuits, Digest of Technical Papers, Kyoto, 14-16 June 2011, pp. 111-114.

[5] Z. Liu, E. Skadas and R. Evans, “A 60 GHz VCO with 6 GHz Tuning Range in 130 nm Bulk CMOS,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 1, 2008, pp. 209-211.

[6] J. P. Maligeorgos and J. R. Long, “A Low-Voltage 5.1 - 5.8 GHz Imagereject Receiver with Wide Dynamic Range,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 35, No. 12, 2000, pp. 1917-1926. doi:10.1109/4.890305

[7] A. Rofougaran, et al., “A Single-Chip “A-Voltage 5.1-5.8 GHz Imagereject 900-MHz spread-Spectrum Wireless Transceiver in 1-μmm CMOS-Part I: Architecture and Transmitted Design,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 33, 1998, pp. 515-534. doi:10.1109/4.663557

[8] C. Meng, Y. W. Chang and S. C. Tseng, “4.9-GHz Low-Phase-Noise Transformer-Based Superharmonic-Coupled GaInP/GaAs HBT QVCO,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Component Letters, Vol. 16, No. 6, 2006, pp. 339-341. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2006.875624

[9] J. Cabanillas, L. Dussopt, J. Lopez-Villegas and G. Rebeiz, “A 900 MHz Low Phase Noise CMOS Quadrature Oscillator,” 2002 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, Seattle, 2-4 June 2002, pp. 63-66.

[10] S. Gierkink, S. Levantino and R. Frye, C. Samori and V. Boccuzzi, “A Low-Phase-Noise 5-GHz GaAs Quadrature VCO Using Superharmonic Coupling,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 38, No. 7, 2003, pp. 1148-1154. doi:10.1109/JSSC.2003.813297

[11] X. Y. Geng and F. F. Dai,, “An x-Band Transformer-Coupled Varactor-Less Quadrature Current-Controlled Oscillator in 0.18 μm SIGE BICMOS,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 45, No. 9, 2010, pp. 1669-1677. doi:10.1109/JSSC.2010.2051266

[12] A. Thanachayanont and M. krairiksh, “Implementation of an rf CMOS Quadrature lc Voltage-Controlled Oscillator Based on the Switched Tail Transistor Topology,” World SciNet, Journal of Circuit System And Computer, Vol. 20, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1280-1285.

[13] Y. Wu, M. Ismail and H. Olsson, “An 8.7 - 13.8 GHz Transformer-Coupled Varactor-Less Quadrature VCO,” Proceeding of IEEE International Symposium Circuit and System, Geneva, May 2000, pp. 149-152.

[14] A. Tang, F. Yuan and E. Lawkrairiksh “CMOS Active Transformers and Their Applications in Voltage-Controlled Quadrature Oscillators,” Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2009, pp. 83-90. doi:10.1007/s10470-009-9318-6