AS  Vol.8 No.9 , September 2017
Dissipation Kinetics of Chlorpyrifos in Soils of a Vegetable Cropping System under Different Cultivation Conditions
Abstract: Dissipation kinetics of chlorpyrifos in the near-neutral paddy soils of a vegetable cropping system under greenhouse, screenhouse and field conditions was studied using a rapid analytical method. The recoveries of chlorpyrifos were between 86.5% and 105.5% with relative standard deviations for repeatability between 6.6% and 9.1% at fortification levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg in the soil. The limit of detection of the method was 0.004 mg/kg and the limit of quantification was found to be 0.01 mg/kg. The dissipation rates of chlorpyrifos followed the first-order kinetics and the half-life was 6.96, 6.04 and 5.20 days in the soil under greenhouse, screenhouse and field conditions, respectively. The dissipation rates of chlorpyrifos in the soil varied with different cultivation conditions. Chlorpyrifos in the soil dissipated slower in a greenhouse and screenhouse than in the open field, which was likely attributed to the hermetic environment in the greenhouse and screenhouse.
Cite this paper: Liu, T. , Yang, D. , Zhang, L. , Jian, M. and Fan, J. (2017) Dissipation Kinetics of Chlorpyrifos in Soils of a Vegetable Cropping System under Different Cultivation Conditions. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 972-983. doi: 10.4236/as.2017.89071.

[1]   Rogers, M.R. and Stringfellow, W.T. (2009) Partitioning of Chlorpyrifos to Soil and Plants in Vegetated Agricultural Drainage Ditches. Chemosphere, 75, 109-114.

[2]   Lemus, R. and Abdelghani, A. (2000) Chlorpyrifos: An Unwelcome Pesticide in Our Homes. Reviews on Environmental Health, 15, 421-433.

[3]   Murray, R.T., Von, S.C., Kennedy, I.R. and Sanchez-Bayo, F. (2001) Stability of Chlorpyrifos for Termiticidal Control in Six Australian Soils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 2844-2847.

[4]   Chishti, Z., Hussain, S., Arshad, K.R., Khalid, A. and Arshad, M. (2013) Microbial Degradation of Chlorpyrifos in Liquid Media and Soil. Journal of Environmental Management, 114, 372-380.

[5]   John, E.M. and Shaike, J.M. (2015) Chlorpyrifos: Pollution and Remediation. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 13, 269-291.

[6]   Jin, Y.X., Liu, Z.Z., Peng, T. and Fu, Z.W. (2015) The toxicity of Chlorpyrifos on the Early Life Stage of Zebrafish: A Survey on the Endpoints at Development, Locomtor Behavior, Oxidative Stress and Immunotoxicity. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 43, 405-414.

[7]   Flaskos, J. (2012) The Developmental Neurotoxicity of Organophosphorus Insecticides: A Direct Role for the Oxon Metabolites. Toxicology Letters, 209, 86-93.

[8]   Farag, A.T. and Ahsorour, R. (2010) Chlorpyrifos Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Mice. Reproductive Toxicology, 29, 80-85.

[9]   Jack, D.T., Gunnar, H. and Alan, B. (2002) Immunological Abnormalities in Human Chronically Exposed to Chlorpyrifos. Archives of Environmental Health, 57, 181-187.

[10]   Krishnan, K., Mitra, N.K., Yee, L.S. and Yang, H.M. (2012) A Comparison of Neurotoxicity in Cerebellum Produced by Dermal Application of Chlorpyrifos in Young and Adult Mice. Journal of Neural Transmission, 119, 345-352.

[11]   Lee, W.J., Alavanja, M.C., Hoppin, J.A., Rusiecki, J.A., Kamel, F., Blair, A. and Sandler, D.P. (2004) Cancer Incidence among Pesticide Applicators Exposed to Chlorpyrifos in the Agricultural Health Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 96, 1781-1789.

[12]   Ge, J., Lu, M.X., Wang, D.L., Zhang, Z., Liu, X. and Yu, X. (2015) Dissipation and Distribution of Chlorpyrifos in Selected Vegetables through Foliage and Root Uptake. Chemosphere, 144, 201-206.

[13]   Han, Y.T., Li, W.M., Dong, F.S., Xu, J., Liu, X.G., Li, Y.B., Kong, Z.Q., Liang, X.Y. and Zheng, Y.Q. (2013) The Behavior of Chlorpyrifos and Its Metabolite; 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol in Tomatoes during Home Canning. Food Control, 31, 560-565.

[14]   Wang, P.D., Rashid, M., Liu, J., Hu, M. and Zhong, G. (2016) Identification of Multi-Insecticide Residues Using GC-NPD and the Degradation Kinetics of Chlorpyrifos in Sweet Corn and Soils. Food Chemistry, 212, 420-426.

[15]   Dores, E.F., Spadotto, C.A., Weber, O.L., Dalla, V.R., Vecchiato, A.B. and Pinto, A.A. (2015) Environmental Behavior of Chlorpyrifos and Endosulfan in a Tropical Soil in Central Brazil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64, 3942-3948.

[16]   Das, S. and Adhya, T.K. (2015) Degradation of Chlorpyrifos in Tropical Rice Soils. Journal of Environmental Management, 152, 36-42.

[17]   Zhang, X., Shen, Y., Yu, X.Y. and Liu, X.J. (2012) Dissipation of Chlorpyrifos and Residue Analysis in Rice, Soil and Water under Paddy Field Conditions. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 78, 276-280.

[18]   Singh, B.K. and Allan, W. (2006) Microbial Degradation of Organophosphorus Compounds. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 30, 428-471.

[19]   Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China (2004) Guideline on Pesticide Residue Trials (NY/T 788-2004). China Agriculture Press, Beijing.

[20]   Jiang, B.N., Liu, T.F., Shan, J.M. and Xie, X.Q. (2014) Determination of Chlorpyrifos Residues in Soil Using GC/μECD Coupled with QuEChERS. Jiangsu Agriculture Sciences, 42, 332-335.

[21]   Ma, Q.L., Rahman, A., Holland, P.T., James, T.K. and Mcnaughton, D.E. (2004) Field Dissipation of Acetochlor in Two New Zealand Soils at Two Application Rates. Journal of Environmental Quality, 33, 930-938.

[22]   European Commission (2009) Method Validation and Quality Control Procedures for Pesticide Residues Analysis in Food and Feed. SANCO/10684/2009.

[23]   Rüdel, H. (1997) Volatilisation of Pesticides from Soil and Plant Surfaces. Chemosphere, 35, 143-152.

[24]   Wu, J. and Nofziger, D.L. (1999) Incorporating Temperature Effects on Pesticide Degradation into a Management Model. Journal of Environmental Quality, 28, 92-100.

[25]   Yu, Y.L., Fang, H., Wang, X., Yu, J.Q. and Fan, D.F. (2005) Dissipation of Chlorpyrifos on Pakchoi inside and outside Greenhouse. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 17, 503-505.

[26]   Williams, W.M., Giddings, J.M., Purdy, J., Solomon, K.R. and Giesy, J.P. (2014) Exposures of Aquatic Organisms to the Organophosphorus Insecticide, Chlorpyrifos Resulting From Use in the United States. Review of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 231, 77-117.

[27]   Fang, H., Yu, Y.L., Wang, X., Shan, M., Wu, X.M. and Yu, J.Q. (2006) Dissipation of Chlorpyrifos in Pakchoi-Vegetated Soil in a Greenhouse. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 18, 760-764.

[28]   Chapman, R.A. and Chapnan, P.C. (1986) Persistence of Granular and EC Formulations of Chlorpyrifos in a Mineral and an Organic Soil Incubated in Open and Closed Containers. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 21, 447-456.

[29]   Getzin, L.W. (1981) Degradation of Chlorpyrifos in Soil: Influence of Autoclaving, Soil Moisture, and Temperature. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74, 58-162.