Back
 AJPS  Vol.8 No.10 , September 2017
Using Pyroxasulfone for Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L.) Control in Winter Wheat
Abstract: Downy brome is one of the most troublesome weeds in no-till wheat production systems of the US Great Plains. Pyroxasulfone is a relatively new, soil-applied residual herbicide (root/shoot growth inhibitor) labeled for use in wheat. Multiple field experiments were conducted near Huntley, MT from 2012 through 2016 to determine the efficacy of pyroxasulfone to control downy brome in imidazolinone (IMI)-tolerant (Clearfield&#8482) winter wheat. Pyroxasulfone did not cause any injury to wheat in any of the three studies. Downy brome injury with pyroxasulfone preemergence (PRE) only program did not differ between 89 or 178 g·ai (active ingredient)·ha-1 rates, and averaged 82% and 84% in 2 separate studies. In a preplant (PP) burndown program, the addition of pyroxasulfone (178 g·ai·ha-1) to glyphosate improved downy brome end-season injury from 15% to 74%. In a separate study, the end-season injury with pyroxasulfone was greater when applied PRE (84%) compared to the delayed PRE (DPRE) timing (74%). In addition, the water dispersible granule (WDG) formulation of pyroxasulfone performed slightly better than the suspension concentrate (SC) formulation for downy brome injury. Pyroxasulfone applied PRE in the fall at a rate of 89 g·ai·ha-1 followed by (fb) imazamox (44 g·ai·ha-1 rate) applied postemergence (POST) in the spring effectively controlled downy brome (99% end-season injury). Furthermore, the injury was consistent with the standard program comprising of propoxycarbazone (29 g·ai·ha-1) PRE fb imazamox POST in IMI-tolerant winter wheat. In conclusion, pyroxasulfone applied PRE in the fall can be effectively utilized in conjunction with a standard acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor-based POST herbicide program for a season-long downy brome management in winter wheat.
Cite this paper: Kumar, V. , Jha, P. and Jhala, A. (2017) Using Pyroxasulfone for Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L.) Control in Winter Wheat. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 8, 2367-2378. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2017.810159.
References

[1]   USDA-NASS (United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service) (2017) Montana Agricultural Facts 2016. USDA-NASS, Helena, MT.
https://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Montana/Publications/Special_
Interest_Reports/agfacts.pdf


[2]   Reddy, S.S., Stahlman, P.W. and Geier, P.W. (2013) Downy Brome (Bromustectorum L.) and Broadleaf Weed Control in Winter Wheat with Acetolactate Synthase-Inhibiting Herbicides. Agronomy, 3, 340-348.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy3020340

[3]   Derksen, D.A., Anderson, R.L., Blackshaw, R.E. and Maxwell, B. (2002) Weed Dynamics and Management Strategies for Cropping Systems in the Northern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal, 94, 174-185.
https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2002.0174

[4]   Bell, A.R. and Nalewaja, J.D. (1968) Competition of Wild Oat in Wheat and Barley. Weed Science, 16, 505-508.

[5]   Dahl, G.K., Dexter, A.G. and Nalewaja, J.D. (1982) Kochia Competition and Control in Wheat. Proceedings of the North Central Weed Control Conference, Indianapolis, 7-9 December 1982, 15-16.

[6]   Morrow, L.A. and Stahlman, P.W. (1984) The History and Distribution of Downy Brome (Bromustectorum) in North America. Weed Science, 32, 2-6.

[7]   Hitchcock, A.S. (1950) Manual of the Grasses of the United States. 2nd Edition, United States Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1051.

[8]   Rice, P.M. (2005) Downy Brome. In: Duncan, C.L. and Clark, J.K., Eds., Invasive Plants of Range and Wildlands and Their Environmental, Economic, and Societal Impacts, Weed Science Society of America, Lawrence, KS, 147-170.

[9]   Rydrych, D.J. (1974) Competition between Winter Wheat and Downy Brome. Weed Science, 22, 211-214.

[10]   Wicks, G.A., Burnside, O.C. and Fenster, C.R. (1971) Influence of Soil Type and Depth of Planting on Downy Brome Seeds. Weed Science, 19, 82-86.

[11]   Thill, D.C., Beck, K.G. and Callihan, R.H. (1984) The Biology of Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum). Weed Science, 32, 7-12.

[12]   Sheley, R.L. and Petroff, J.K., Eds. (1999) Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, 428.

[13]   Blackshaw, R.E. (1993) Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) Density and Relative Time of Emergence Affects Interference in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Science, 41, 551-556.

[14]   Rydrych, D.J. and Muzik, T.J. (1968) Downy Brome Competition and Control in Dryland Wheat. Agronomy Journal, 60, 279-280.
https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1968.00021962006000030010x

[15]   Stahlman, P.W. and Miller, S.D. (1990) Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) Interference and Economic Thresholds in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Science, 38, 221-228.

[16]   Heap, I.M. (2017) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.
http://www.weedscience.org

[17]   Kumar, V. and Jha, P. (2017) First Report of Ser653Asn Mutation Endowing High-Level Resistance to Imazamox in Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L.). Pest Management Science.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.4673

[18]   Park, K.W., Fandrich, L. and Mallory-Smith, C.A. (2004) Absorption, Translocation, and Metabolism of Propoxycarbazone-Sodium in ALS-Inhibitor Resistant Bromus tectorum Biotypes. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 79, 18-24.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2003.11.002

[19]   Park, K.W. and Mallory-Smith, C.A. (2004) Physiological and Molecular Basis for ALS Inhibitor Resistance in Bromus tectorum Biotypes. Weed Research, 44, 71-77.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2003.00374.x

[20]   Tanetani, Y., Kaku, K., Kawai, K., Fujioka, T. and Shimizu, T. (2009) Action Mechanism of a Novel Herbicide, Pyroxasulfone. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 95, 47-55.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2009.06.003

[21]   Hulting, A.G., Dauer, J.T., Hinds-Cook, B., Curtis, D., Koepke-Hill, R.M. and Mallory-Smith, C. (2012) Management of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) in Western Oregon with Preemergence Applications of Pyroxasulfone in Winter Wheat. Weed Technology, 26, 230-235.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-11-00059.1

[22]   Jha, P., Kumar, V., Garcia, J. and Reichard, N. (2015) Tank Mixing Pendimethalin with Pyroxasulfone and Chloroacetamide Herbicides Enhances In-Season Residual Weed Control in Corn. Weed Technology, 29, 198-206.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-14-00095.1

[23]   Tidemann, B.D., Hall, L.M., Johnson, E.N., Beckie, H.J., Sapsford, K.L. and Raatz, L.L. (2014) Efficacy of Fall- and Spring-Applied Pyroxasulfone for Herbicide-Resistant Weeds in Field Pea. Weed Technology, 28, 351-360.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-13-00140.1

[24]   Boutsalis, P., Gill, G.S. and Preston, C. (2014) Control of Rigid Ryegrass in Australian Wheat Production with Pyroxasulfone. Weed Technology, 28, 332-339.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-13-00094.1

[25]   Westra, E.P., Shaner, D.L., Westra, P.H. and Chapman, P.L. (2014) Dissipation and Leaching of Pyroxasulfone and S-Metolachlor. Weed Technology, 28, 72-81.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-13-00047.1

[26]   Jacobsen, J., Jackson, G. and Jones, C. (2005) Fertilizer Guidelines for Montana Crops. Montana State University Extension Service Publication, Montana, EB 161.

[27]   Walsh, M.J., Fowler, T.M., Crowe, B., Ambe, T. and Powles, S.B. (2011) The Potential for Pyroxasulfone to Selectively Control Resistant and Susceptible Rigid Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) Biotypes in Australian Grain Crop Production Systems. Weed Technology, 25, 30-37.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-10-00091.1

[28]   Ostlie, M.H. and Howatt, K.A. (2013) Downy Brome (Bromustec torum) Competition and Control in No-Till Spring Wheat. Weed Technology, 27, 502-508.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-11-00033.1

 
 
Top