JBM  Vol.5 No.9 , September 2017
The Modulation Effect of Triglyceride Type and Phospholipids Type ω-3 LCPUFA on Mice Gut Microbiota
Abstract: The evaluation from prospective cohort studies on the dietary ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation and nutritional value is consistent. However, the effect of different types of ω-3 long-chain PUFA (ω-3 LCPUFA) on microbiota in intestine is inconsistent. In this study, the mice were divided into three groups (N, PL, FO), with AIN-93M (N), AIN-93M + Phospholipids type ω-3 LCPUFA (PL) and AIN-93M + triglyceride type ω-3 LCPUFA (FO), respectively. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to detect the structure of intestinal microbiota. The data showed that the composition of gut microbiota was changed by treating with the two types of ω-3 LCPUFA. The results revealed that gut microbiota’ enrichment in FO group was decreased while in PL group was increased. The data also showed that the histological morphology of the small intestine in treated mice was improved especially in group PL, which was much more significant and suggested that Phospholipids type ω-3 LCPUFA is beneficial to intestinal health.
Cite this paper: Wang, X. , Liu, F. , Wang, Y. , Xue, C. and Tang, Q. (2017) The Modulation Effect of Triglyceride Type and Phospholipids Type ω-3 LCPUFA on Mice Gut Microbiota. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 5, 54-64. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2017.59006.

[1]   Amandine, E., Clara, B., Lucie, G., Ouwerkerk, J.P., Céline, D., Bindels, L.B., et al. (2013) Cross-Talk between Akkermansia Muciniphila and Intestinal Epithelium Controls Diet-Induced Obesity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 9066-9071.

[2]   Calder, P.C. (2015) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids, 67, 659-667.

[3]   Carlotta, D.F., Duccio, C., Monica, D.P., Matteo, R., Jean Baptiste, P., Sebastien, M., et al. (2011) Impact of Diet in Shaping Gut Microbiota Revealed by a Comparative Study in Children from Europe and Rural Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 43, S445-S446.

[4]   Carmen, S.D., Miyoshi, A., Azevedo, V., Leblanc, A.D.M.D. and Leblanc, J.G. (2015) Evaluation of a Streptococcus Thermophilus Strain with Innate Anti-Inflammatory Properties as a Vehicle for il-10 Cdna Delivery in an Acute Colitis Model. Cytokine, 73, 177-183.

[5]   Hiromi, K.N., Chise, S., Miho, K., Keisuke, S., Jun-Ichi, K. and Koko, M. (2007) Anti-Ageing Effect of a Lactococcal Strain: Analysis Using Senescence-Accelerated Mice. British Journal of Nutrition, 98, 1178-1186.

[6]   Kim, H.B. and Isaacson, R.E. (2015) The Pig Gut Microbial Diversity: Understanding the Pig Gut Microbial Ecology through the Next Generation High Throughput Sequencing. Veterinary Microbiology, 177, 242-251.

[7]   Laure, G., Cécile, V., Corinne, L.P., Valérie, S., Stéphanie, L.P., Jocelyne, D., et al. (2011) 13c Tracer Recovery in Human Stools after Digestion of a Fat-Rich Meal Labelled with [1,1,1-13c3]Tripalmitin and [1,1,1-13c3]Triolein. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Rcm, 25, 2697-2703.

[8]   Lederberg, J. (2000) Infectious History. Science, 288, 287-293.

[9]   Martin, R., Zuzana Macek, J., Ondrej, K., Tomas, J., Dasa, M., Barbora, S., et al. (2012) Metabolic Effects of n-3 Pufa as Phospholipids Are Superior to Triglycerides in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet: Possible Role of Endocannabinoids. PLoS One, 7, e38834.

[10]   Moraïs, S., David, Y.B., Bensoussan, L., Duncan, S.H., Koropatkin, N.M., Martens, E.C., Flint, H.J. and Bayer, E.A. (2016) Enzymatic Profiling of Cellulosomal Enzymes from the Human Gut Bacterium, Ruminococcus champanellensis, Reveals a Fine-Tuned System for Cohesin-Dockerin Recognition. Environmental Microbiology, 18, 542-546.

[11]   Russell, W.R., Lorraine, S., Andrew, C., Richardson, A.J., Stewart, C.S., Duncan, S.H., et al. (2008) Anti-Inflammatory Implications of the Microbial Transformation of Dietary Phenolic Compounds. Nutrition & Cancer, 60, 636-642.

[12]   Russell, W.R., Gratz, S.W., Duncan, S.H., Grietje, H., Jennifer, I., Lorraine, S., et al. (2011) High-Protein, Reduced-Carbohydrate Weight-Loss Diets Promote Metabolite Profiles Likely to Be Detrimental to Colonic Health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93, 1062-1072.

[13]   Sahoo, T.K., Jena, P.K., Patel, A.K. and Seshadri, S. (2015) Purification and Molecular Characterization of the Novel Highly Potent Bacteriocin tsu4 Produced by Lactobacillus animalis tsu4. Applied Biochemistry & Biotechnology, 177, 90-104.

[14]   Sahoo, T.K., Jena, P.K., Nagar, N., Patel, A.K. and Seshadri, S. (2015) In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Gut of Labeo rohita and Catla catla. Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins, 7, 126-136.

[15]   Simopoulos, A.P. (2008) The Importance of the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio in Cardiovascular Disease and Other Chronic Diseases. Experimental Biology & Medicine, 233, 674-688.

[16]   Santis, S.D., Cavalcanti, E., Mastronardi, M., Jirillo, E. and Chieppa, M. (2015) Nutritional Keys for Intestinal Barrier Modulation. Frontiers in Immunology, 6, 612.

[17]   Tremaroli, V. and Bäckhed, F. (2012) Functional Interactions between the Gut Microbiota and Host Metabolism. Nature, 489, 242-249.

[18]   Valenzuela, R., Espinosa, A., González-Mañán, D., D’Espessailles, A., Fernández, V., Videla, L.A., et al. (2012) Effect of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation of Significantly Reduces Liver Oxidative Stress in High Fat Induced Steatosis. PLoS ONE, 7, 440-440.

[19]   Van, D.E.L., Garssen, J. and Willemsen, L. (2012) Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention of Allergic and Cardiovascular Disease. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 18, 2375-2392.