Back
 AiM  Vol.7 No.9 , September 2017
Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk Factors among Asymptomatic Subjects in Delta State, Nigeria
Abstract: Aim: The study aimed at evaluating the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection and its associated risk factors in a cross-section of asymptomatic adult population in Niger-Delta, Nigeria. Methodology: 408 apparently healthy volunteers, aged between 18 - 87 years were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected from participants and analyzed for H. pylori antibody (IgG) qualitatively with Combo rapid kits and quantitatively with Accu-Bind ELISA Kits. Results: The overall prevalence of Helicobacter pylori colonization in 408 asymptomatic adults was 52.5% (n = 214) and 48.3% (n = 197) by qualitative (Combo rapid kits) and quantitative (Accu-Bind ELISA Kits) serological test methods respectively. H. pylori infection did not differ statistically between genders (p = 0.962) and among age groups (p = 0.185). In addition, multivariate logistic regression indicated that sex and age were not associated with risk of H. pylori. However, participants from Delta Central were at greater risk (OR = 1.89; p = 0.014) of H. pylori infection compared with those from Delta South, but those from Delta North were not at greater risk of infection compared with those from Delta South (p = 0.476). Conclusion: This study indicated an intermediate seroprevalence of H. pylori among asymptomatic adults in Delta state, Nigeria. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was linked to geographical regions but not with sex and age.
Cite this paper: Omosor, K. , Omosor, O. , Ibeh, I. , Adejumo, B. , Abdulkadir, U. , Dimkpa, U. , Uchuno, G. , Oke, O. , Abdulkadir, R. , Hamidu, M. and Emmanuel, A. (2017) Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk Factors among Asymptomatic Subjects in Delta State, Nigeria. Advances in Microbiology, 7, 641-652. doi: 10.4236/aim.2017.79050.
References

[1]   Sethi, M.A, Chaudhuri, C., Len, K.C. and Hopman, W. (2013) Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in a First Nations Population in Northwestern Ontario. Canadian Family Physician, 59, e182-187.

[2]   Hunt, R.H., Chair, Xiao, S.D., Megraud, F., Leon-Barua, R. and Bazzoli, F. (2011) Helicobacter pylori in Developing Countries. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 45, 383-388.
https://doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0b013e31820fb8f6

[3]   Akin, O.Y., Tsou, V.M. and Werner, A.L. (1995) Gastrospirillum Hominis-Associated Chronic Active Gastritis. Pediatric Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 15, 429-435.
https://doi.org/10.3109/15513819509026978

[4]   Akada, J.K., Shirai, M., Takeuchi, H.T., suda, M. and Nakazawa, T. (2000) Identification of the Urease Operon in Helicobacter pylori and Its Control by mRNA Decay in Response to pH. Molecular Microbiology, 36, 1071-1084.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.01918.x

[5]   Akhiani, A.A., Pappo, J., Kabok, Z., Schon, K., Gao, W., Franzen, L.E. and Lycke, N. (2002) Protection against Helicobacter pylori Infection Following Immunization Is IL-12-Dependent and Mediated by Th1 Cells. Journal of Immunology, 169, 6977-6984.
https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.169.12.6977

[6]   Martin, D., May, S., Tweedle, D., Hollanders, D., Ravenscroft, M. and Miller, J. (1981) Differences in Relapse Rates of Duodenal Ulcer after Healing with Cimetidine or Tripotassium Dicitrato Bismuthate. Lancet, 1, 7-10.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(81)90114-8

[7]   Nomura, A., Stemmermann, G.N., Chyou, P.H., Perez-Perez, G.I. and Blaser, M.J. (1994) Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk of Duodenal and Gastric Ulceration. Annal of Internal Medicine, 120, 977-981.
https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-120-12-199406150-00001

[8]   Tursi, A.I., Cammarota, G., Papa, A., Cuoco, L., Gentiloni, N., Fedeli, P., Fedeli, G. and Gasbarrini, G. (1997) The Modes of Transmission of Helicobacter pylori Infection. Recenti Progressi in Medicina, 88, 232-336.

[9]   Malaty, H.M. and Graham, D.Y. (1994) Importance of Childhood Socioeconomic Status on the Current Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Gut, 35, 742-751.
https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.35.6.742

[10]   Mendall, M.A., Goggin, P.M., Molineaux, N., et al. (1992) Childhood Living Conditions and Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Adult Life, Lancet, 339, 896-897.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(92)90931-R

[11]   Novis, B.H., Gabay, G. and Naftali, T. (1998) Helicobacter pylori: The Middle East Scenario. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 71, 135-141.

[12]   Li, Y.H., Guo, H., Zhang, P.B., Zhao, X.Y. and Da, S.P. (2004) Clinical Value of Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test, ImmunoCard STAT HpSA, for Detecting H Pylori Infection. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 10, 913-914.

[13]   Miranda, A.C.P., Machado, R.S., da Silva, E.M.K. and Kawakami, E. (2010) Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection among Children of Low Socioeconomic Level in São Paulo. Sao Paulo Medical Journal, 128, 187-191.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-31802010000400002

[14]   Malaty, H.M. (2007) Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection. Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 21, 205-214.

[15]   Genta, R.M. (2002) Review Article: After Gastritis—An Imaginary Journey into a Helicobacter-Free World. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 16, 89.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.16.s4.15.x

[16]   Oliveira, A.M., Queiroz, D.M., Rocha, G.A. and Mendes, E.N. (1994) Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children of Low Socioeconomic Level in Belollorizonte, Brazil. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 89, 2201-2204.

[17]   Rehnberg-Laiho, L., Rautelin, H., Koskela, P., Sarna, S., Pukkala, E., Aromaa, A., Knekt, P. and Kosunen, T.U. (2001) Decreasing Prevalence of Helicobacter Antibodies in Finland, with Reference to the Decreasing Incidence of Gastric Cancer. Epidemiology & Infection, 126, 37-42.

[18]   Roosendaal, R., Kuipers, E.J., Buitenwerf, J., VanUffelen, C., Meuwissen, S.G., Van Kamp, G.J. and Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M. (1997) Helicobacter pylori and the Birth Cohort Effect: Evidence of a Continuous Decrease of Infection Rates in Childhood. America Journal Gastroenterology, 92, 1480-1482.

[19]   Ndububa, D.A., Agbakwuru, A.E., Adebayo, R.A., et al. (2001) Upper Gastrointestinal Findings and Incidence of Helicobacter pylori Infection among Nigeria Patients with Dyspepsia. West Africa Journal of Medicine, 20, 140-145.

[20]   Fischbach, W., Malfertheiner, P., Hoffmann, J.C., Bolten, W., Kist, M. and Koletzko, S. (2009) Helicobacter pylori and Gastroduodenal Ulcer Disease. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 106, 801-808.

[21]   Tijjani, B. and Umar, A. (2008) Peptic Ulcer Disease and Helicobacter pylori Infection at Kano, Nigeria. International Journal of Gastroenterology, 8, 1.

[22]   Pronovost, A.D., Rose, S.L., Pawlak, J.W., Robin, H. and Schneider, R. (1994) Evaluation of a New Immunodiagnostic Assay for Helicobacter pylori Antibody Detection: Correlation with Histopathological and Micro-Biological Results. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 32, 46-50.

[23]   Vans, D.J., Evans, D.G., et al. (1989) A Sensitive and Specific Seriologic Test for Detection of Campylobacter Pylori Infection. Gastroenerology, 96, 1004.

[24]   Kimmel, B., Bosserhoff, A. and Frank, R. (2000) Identification of Immunodominant Antigens from Helicobacter pylori and Evaluation of Their Reactivities with Sera from Patients with Different Gastroduodenal Pathology. Infection and Immunity, 68, 915-920.
https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.68.2.915-920.2000

[25]   Brown, L.M. (2000) Helicobacter pylori: Epidemiology and Routes of Transmission. Epidemiologic Reviews, 22, 284-297.
https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.epirev.a018040

[26]   Jemikajah, D.J. and Okogun, G.R.A. (2014) Health Point: Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Central Hospital, Warri, Nigeria. African Journal of Cellular Pathology, 3, 57-60.

[27]   Alo, M.N., Alhassan, H.M., Saidu, A.Y., Ugah, U.I. And Anyim, C. (2013) The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Asymptomatic Persons in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Public Health Pharmapeutic, 1, 115-119.

[28]   Onemu, S.O., Ophori, E.A., Isibor, C. and Johnny, E.J. (2011) Immunological Response to Helicobacter pylori among Healthy Volunteers in Agbor, Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 1, 38-40.

[29]   Jemilohun, A.C., Otegbayo, J.A., Ola, S.O., Oluwasola, O.A. and Akere, A. (2011) Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among Nigerian Patients with Dyspepsia in Ibadan. Pan African Medical Journal, 6, 18.
https://doi.org/10.4314/pamj.v6i1.69090

[30]   Saidu, A.Y., Munir, G., Salihu, Y.N., Sani, M., Muhammad, Y. and Dodo, A.M. (2015) Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori among Adult in Sokoto Metropolis. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 4, 64-69.

[31]   Wong, B.C., Lam, S.K., Ching, C.K., et al. (1999) Differential Helicobacter pylori Infection Rates in Two Contrasting Gastric Cancer Risk Regions of South China. China Gastric Cancer Study Group. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 14, 120-125.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1746.1999.01823.x

[32]   Malaty, H.M., Kim, J.G., Kim, S.D., et al. (1996) Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Korean Children: Inverse Relation to Socioeconomic Status Despite a Uniformly High Prevalence in Adults. American Journal of Epidemiology, 143, 257-262.
https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008736

[33]   Bohmer, C.J., Klinkenberg-Knol, E.C., Kuipers, E.J., et al. (1997) The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection among Inhabitants and Healthy Employees of Institutes for the Intellectually Disabled. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 92, 1000-1004.

[34]   Lambert, J.R., Lin, S.K., Sievert, W., et al. (1995) High Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Antibodies in an Institutionalized Population: Evidence for Person-to-Person Transmission. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 90, 2167-2171.

[35]   Harris, A.W., Douds, A., Meurisse, E.V., et al. (1995) Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Residents of a Hospital for People with Severe Learning Difficulties. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 7, 21-23.

[36]   Kaore, N.M., Nagdeo, N.V. and Thombare, V.R. (2012) Comparative Evaluation of the Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter pylori and Dietary Influence for Its Acquisition in Dyspeptic Patients: A Rural Hospital Based Study in Central India. JCDR, No. 6, 636-641.

[37]   Dooley, C.P., Cohen, H., Fitzgibbons, P.L., Bauer, M., Appleman, M.D., Perez-Perez, G.I. and Blaser, M.J. (1989) Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Histologic Gastritis in Asymptomatic Persons. The New England Journal of Medicine, 321, 1562-1566.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198912073212302

[38]   Zhu, Y., Zhou, X., Wu, J., Su, J. and Zhang, G. (2014) Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Persistent High Incidence Area of Gastric Carcinoma in Yangzhong City. Gastroenterology Research and Practice, 2014, Article ID: 481365.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/481365

[39]   Regev, A., Fraser, G.M., Braun, M., Maoz, E., Leibovici, L. and Niv, Y. (1999) Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori and Length of Stay in a Nursing Home. Helicobacter, 4, 89-93.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-5378.1999.98640.x

[40]   Pilotto, A., Fabrello, R., Franceschi, M., Scagnelli, M., Soffiati, F., Di Mario, F., Fortunato, A. and Valerio, G. (1996) Helicobacter pylori Infection in Asymptomatic Elderly Subjects Living at Home or in a Nursing Home: Effects on Gastric Function and Nutritional Status. Age Ageing, 25, 245-249.
https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/25.3.245

[41]   Neri, M.C., Lai, L., Bonetti, P., Baldassarri, A.R., Monti, M., De Luca, P., Cunietti, E. and Quatrini, M. (1996) Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Elderly Inpatients and in Institutionalized Old People: Correlation with Nutritional Status. Age Ageing, 25, 17-21.
https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/25.1.17

[42]   Salles-Montaudon, N., Dertheil, S., Broutet, N., Gras, N., Monteiro, L., De Mascarel, A., Megraud, F. and Emeriau, J.P. (2002) Detecting Helicobacter pylori Infection in Hospitalized Frail Older Patients: The Challenge. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50, 1674-1680.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50459.x

[43]   Goh, K.L., Chan, W.K., Shiota, S. and Yamaoka, Y. (2011) Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Public Health Implications. Helicobacter, 16, 1-9.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-5378.2011.00874.x

[44]   Dorji, D., Dendup, T., Malaty, H.M., Wangchuk, K., Yangzom, D. and Richter, J.M. (2014) Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Bhutan: The Role of Environment and Geographic Location. Helicobacter, 19, 69-73.
https://doi.org/10.1111/hel.12088

[45]   Malaty, H.M., Graham, D.Y., Wattigney, W.A., et al. (1999) Natural History of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Childhood: 12-Year Follow-Up Cohort Study in a Biracial Community. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 28, 279-282.
https://doi.org/10.1086/515105

[46]   Graham, D.Y., Malaty, H.M., Evans, D.G., Evans, D.J., Klein, P.D. and Adam, E. (1991) Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in an Asymptomatic Population in the United States: Effect of Age, Race and Socioeconomic Status. Gastroenterology, 100, 1495-1501.

[47]   Mitchell, H.M., Li, Y.Y., Hu, P.J., Liu, Q., Chen, M., Du, G.G., et al. (1992) Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Southern China: Identification of Early Childhood as the Critical Period for Acquisition. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 166, 149-153.
https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/166.1.149

[48]   Shi, R., Xu, S. and Zhang, H. (2008) Prevalence and Risk Factors for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Chinese Populations. Helicobacter, 13, 157-165.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-5378.2008.00586.x

[49]   Malcolm, C.A., MacKay, W.G., Shepherd, A. and Weaver, L.T. (2004) Helicobacter pylori in Children Is Strongly Associated with Poverty. Scottish Medical Journal, 49, 136-138.
https://doi.org/10.1177/003693300404900406

 
 
Top