ralized tonic-clonic seizures whereas 63 (35.4%) had complex partial seizures. About one-third of the patients (32.0%) reported having an aura before each seizure episode. In 3.9% of the patients the EEG and imaging modalities showed evidence of focal brain lesions. Table 2 depicts the clinical characteristics of the patients.

3.3. Seizure Management Strategy

One hundred and sixty five of the 178 patients (92.7%) were treated with anti- epileptic drug monotherapy whereas 13 (7.3%) received two-drug combinations. There were no individuals that were treated with more than two anti-epileptic drugs. Table 3 shows the pattern of anti-epileptic drug prescription in the setting.

Among the patients on monotherapy, carbamazepine was the most frequently prescribed drug: 87.9% of the patients on monotherapy received carbamazepine. The other patients received sodium valproate (8.5%), phenobarbitone (1.7%), and phenytoin (1.7%). Of the patients treated with two anti-epileptic drugs, 76.9% received carbamazepine and phenobarbitone, 15.4% carbamazepine and valproate combination, and 7.7% received phenobarbitone and phenytoin combination. The patients on monotherapy had a mean age of 27.0 ± 11.5 years,

Table 2. Clinical characteristics of the patients.

*EEG = Electroencephalography; **CT = Computerised Tomography Scan; ***MRI = Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Table 3. Pattern of Anti-Epileptic Drug (AED) prescription.

whereas those that received polytherapy had a mean age of 23.4 ± 8.6 years (p > 0.05). There were no differences in the type of seizures presented with and the duration of the illness between those that received AED polytherapy in comparison with individuals on monotherapy. On the other hand, statistically significant differences were observed in the frequency of reporting of aura in the peri- ictal period and daily dosage of anti-epileptic drugs prescribed for individuals in the two groups. There was a higher rate of reporting of epileptic aura in the polytherapy group relative to the monotherapy group (69.2% versus 29.1%) (p = 0.003). In addition, individuals on polytherapy received much higher mean daily medication doses (p < 0.0001). The dosing of anti-epileptic medications and selected seizure variables in the two groups (monotherapy versus polytherapy) are depicted in Table 4.

Some of the patients received certain medications as adjuncts to their AED medications, either to improve control of seizures or to enhance cognitive functioning. Some of the medications prescribed as adjuncts in this manner include clonazepam (6.2%), diazepam (1.1%), vinpocetine (1.7%), and donepexil (1.1%).

Table 4. Seizure variables and dosing of the medications.

4. Discussion

The major finding of this study was the predominant use of monotherapy as a treatment strategy for epilepsy patients seen in the psychiatric facility. This practice is in accordance with the recent treatment recommendations and expert guidelines [13] [16] [17] [18] and needs to be encouraged. There appears to be a general trend towards the reduction of polytherapy and greater use of monotherapy in the prescription patterns of anti-epileptic medications in specialist centres in both the industrialized and developing countries [9] [11] [19] [20] [21] . The major sources of differences appear to be the selection of what monotherapy to prescribe for individual patients. However, some reports have drawn attention to the observation that in some series, polytherapy is being increasingly adopted, as a means of overcoming the refractory nature of some patients’ epilepsies [22] [23] . Some of these reports have also shown that the adoption of polytherapy significantly increases the cost of epilepsy treatment. For instance, an Indian study showed that the addition of newer anti-epileptic drugs to overcome difficult to control seizures increased the direct cost of treating epilepsy exponentially [22] . It is not certain as to the extent to which refractoriness will influence the prescription pattern in Nigeria and similar resource limited settings in the future.

The finding of the almost exclusive use of carbamazepine for all categories of seizures might appear to be a peculiarity of the treatment setting. It was prescribed for 92.7% of the patients that received monotherapy and 92.3% of the patients that received two anti-epileptic drugs. This high rate of prescription of carbamazepine might be related to its mood stabilizing properties [3] and the control of the behavioural manifestations of epilepsy [24] . It is likely that most of the patients that present to the psychiatric facility with seizure disorders might be those with predominantly complex partial seizures and behavioural concomitants of generalized epilepsy. This view is in keeping with the observation of a seizure phenomenology of 35.4% for complex partial seizures and 61.2% for generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the series. The minimal undesirable effects of carbamazepine on cognition and behaviour is noteworthy [25] [26] [27] ; however, the current recommendations denote it as one of the first line drugs for partial and secondarily generalized epilepsies [16] [28] , a status it shares with sodium valproate, lamotrigine, and oxcarbazepine. It is therefore not clear whether the observed near reliance on the use of carbamazepine for seizure disorders encountered in psychiatric practice constitutes an appropriate use of the drug. It is also not clear what level of seizure control was achieved for most of the patients that were given this treatment or the quality of their lives. Further studies might be required to evaluate these issues. On the other hand, in the psychiatric treatment of epileptic disorders, the achievement of seizure control with a medication that does not provoke or exacerbate psychiatric and emotional symptoms is given premium value [3] [15] [29] .

The rate of prescription of sodium valproate observed in this study (8.5%) appears rather low, given that it is also thought to have mood stabilizing effects [27] and is recommended as a drug of choice for primary generalized seizures and in situations in which the seizure type is uncertain [16] . These characteristics make it suitable for use in specialist psychiatric treatment of epilepsy. However, Lim et al. have cautioned that the availability and accessibility of anti- epileptic drugs play crucial roles in their use by clinicians, especially in the developing countries [9] . It is not certain if this had contributed to the observed picture. Neither is it clear whether it was the cost or logistical reasons that resulted in the complete absence of use of the newer anti-epileptic drugs like lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine which also appear to be well-tolerated, and stable with respect to mood, cognition and behaviour [18] [27] [30] [31] .

The over-reliance on clinical assessments as the sole diagnostic instrument for epileptic disorders observed in this study suggests that our practice lags way behind international recommendations. Although, clinical approaches can suffice in the diagnosis of epilepsy, the judicious use of EEG and neuro-imaging techniques can help improve the quality of epilepsy care [13] [18] [20] and facilitate the detection of those conditions that could be surgically corrected [32] [33] . The use of EEG in the diagnosis of seizures gives valuable information that may create value with respect to clinical diagnostic specification, classification of the epilepsy type, choice of future AED and recognition of structural brain lesions [34] . Unlike EEG, the low rate of usage of CT and MRI assessments is justified because they are only recommended when their attendant costs are justifiable, and especially, for exploration of suspected underlying structural brain lesions [34] . However, in the setting in which the study was conducted, the availability, accessibility and affordability of high technology investigative procedures pose tough logistical obstacles to overcome.

A minority of the patients were treated with diazepam and clonazepam as add-on therapy to improve the efficacy of the prescribed anti-epileptic medications. Even though this practice is widespread [9] [35] [36] , it needs not be encouraged because these drugs can cause marked sedation and tolerance when used for just a short period of time. Two of the medications used as adjuncts in this study (vinpocetine and donepezil) were prescribed for individuals who had complained of memory and concentration difficulties. It is not certain if this pattern of usage was appropriate or inappropriate. However, vinpocetine in particular, is being promoted in Nigeria as an agent that can improve cognitive performance, even in normal people and among students engaged in academic pursuits [37] . Even though this represents an exaggerated marketing promise, it is possible that certain clinicians may accept such statements literally.

The usual approach to epilepsy treatment involves riveting attention on the control of the seizures alone. However, treatment in the psychiatric setting requires consideration of the psychological and social impacts of the seizures and their consequences as well [38] . These matters usually affect the decisions regarding what medications to prescribe in given clinical contexts. The appropriate selection and adjustment of anti-epileptic drugs can help to effectively manage the behavioural manifestations of epilepsy [39] [40] .

5. Limitations

6. Conclusion

Cite this paper
Achor, J. , Nwefoh, E. , Ezeala-Adikaibe, B. , Ezeruigbo, C. and Agomoh, A. (2017) Anti-Epileptic Drug Prescription in a Psychiatric Hospital Outpatient Clinic in Southeast Nigeria. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 7, 294-306. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2017.74025.
[1]   Pilo, L. (1993) The Psychiatric Complications of Epilepsy. Singapore Medical Journal, 34, 349-350.

[2]   Kanner, A.M. (1999) Depressive Disorders in Epilepsy. Neurology, 53, S26-S32.

[3]   Bresnahan, D. (2004) Psychiatric Comorbidity in Epilepsy and End Stage Renal Disease. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 103, 64-67.

[4]   Sander, J.W.A.S., Hart, Y.M., Trimble, M.R. and Shorvon, S.D. (1991) Vigabatrin and psychosis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 54, 435-439.

[5]   Kessler, R.C., McGonagle, K.A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C.B., Hughes, M., et al (1994) Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-III-R Psychiatric Disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8-19.

[6]   Fiordelli, E., Beghi, E., Bogliun, G. and Crespi, V. (1993) Epilepsy and Psychiatric Disturbance: A Cross-Sectional Study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 446-450.

[7]   Jones, J.A., Hermann, B.P., Barry, J.J., Gilliam, F., Kanner, A.M. and Meador, K.J. (2005) Clinical Assessment of Axis 1 Psychiatric Morbidity in Chronic Epilepsy: A Multicenter Investigation. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17, 172-179.

[8]   Tugwell, C. (2003) Current and Future Aspects of the Drug Therapy of Epilepsy. Hospital Pharmacist, 10, 296-302.

[9]   Lim, S., Tan, E. and Chen, C. (1997) Pattern of Anti-Epileptic Drug Usage in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Singapore. Neurology Journal of Southeast Asia, 2, 77-85.

[10]   Li, L.M., Fernandes, P.T., Noronha, A.L.A., Marques, L.H.N., Borges, M.A., Borges, K., Cendes, F., Guerreiro, C.A., Zanetta, D.M., de Boer, H.M., Espindola, J., Miranda, C.T., Prilipko, L. and Sander, J.W. (2007) Demonstration Project on Epilepsy in Brazil: Outcome Assessment. Arquivos De Neuro-Psiquiatria, 65, 58-62.

[11]   Thomas, S.V., Koshy, S., Sudhakaran Nair, C.R. and Sarma, S.P. (2005) Frequent Seizures and Polytherapy Can Impair Quality of Life in Persons with Epilepsy. Neurology India, 53, 46-50.

[12]   Dourado, M.V., Alonso, N.B., Martins, H.H., Oliveira, A.R.C., Vancini, R.L., de Lima, C., Dubas, J.P., Ferreira Caboclo, L.O., Ferreira Guilhoto, L.M.F. and Yacubian, E.M.T. (2007) Quality of Life and the Self-Perception Impact of Epilepsy in Three Different Epilepsy Types. Journal of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, 13, 191-196.

[13]   Bassili, A., Omar, T., Zaki, A., Abdel-Fattah, M., Tognoni, G. and Egyptian-Italian Collaborative Group (2002) Pattern of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Care of Childhood Epilepsy in Alexandria, Egypt. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 14, 277-284.

[14]   Williamson, J.W. (1994) Issues and Challenges in Quality Assurance of Health Care. International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 6, 5-15.

[15]   Kanner, A.M. (2003) Depression in Epilepsy: Prevalence, Clinical Semiology, Pathogenic Mechanisms, and Treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 388-398.

[16]   Marson, A.G., Appleton, R., Baker, G.A., Chadwick, D.W., Doughty, J., Eaton, B., Gamble, C., Jacoby, A., Shackley, P., Smith, D.F., Tudur-Smith, C., Vanoli, A. and Williamsion, P.R. (2007) A Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Longer Term Outcomes of Standard Versus New Antiepileptic Drugs. The SANAD Trial. Health Technology Assessment, 11, 1-134.

[17]   Lammers, M.W., Hekster, Y.A., Keyser, A.A., Meinardi, H.H., Renier, W.O. and Van Lier, H. (1995) Monotherapy or Polytherapy for Epilepsy Revisited: A Quantitative Assessment. Epilepsia, 36, 440-446.

[18]   Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2003) Diagnosis and Management of Epilepsy in Adults: A National Clinical Guideline. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, Edinburgh, SIGN 70.

[19]   Poindexter, A.R., Berglund, J.A. and Kolstoe, P.D. (1993) Changes in Antiepileptic Drug Prescribing Patterns in Large Institutions: Preliminary Results of a Five Year Experience. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 98, 34-40.

[20]   Smith, D., Defalla, B.A. and Chadwick, D.W. (1999) The Misdiagnosis of Epilepsy and the Management of Refractory Epilepsy in a Specialist Clinic. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 92, 15-23.

[21]   Hui, A.C.F. (2004) Kwan P Epilepsy in Hong Kong: A Literature Review. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 10, 185-189.

[22]   Haroon, A., Tripathi, M., Khanam, R. and Vohora, D. (2012) Antiepileptic Drugs Prescription Utilization Behaviour and Direct Costs of Treatment in a National Hospital of India. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 15, 289-293.

[23]   Malerba, A., Ciampa, C., De Fazio, S., Fattore, C., Frassine, B., La Neve, A., Pellacani, S., Specchio, L.M., Tiberti, A., Tinuper, P. and Perucca, E. (2010) Patterns of Prescription of Antiepileptic Drugs in Patients with Refractory Epilepsy at Tertiary Referral Centres in Italy. Epilepsy Research, 91, 273-282.

[24]   Torta, R. and Keller, R. (1999) Behavioural, Psychotic, and Anxiety Disorders in Epilepsy: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Therapeutic Implications. Epilepsia, 40, S2-S20.

[25]   Waisburg, H. and Alvarez, N. (1998) Carbamazepine in the Treatment of Epilepsy in People with Intellectual Disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability and Research, 42, 36-40.

[26]   Sweileh, W., Al-Shakshair, A., Jardarat, N., Abu-Rabie, K. and Sabah, W. (2006) Prevalence and Treatment of Patients with Epilepsy Associated with Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study in Palestine. The Islamic University Journal, 14, 183-189.

[27]   Kwan, P. and Brodie, M.J. (2001) Neuropsychological Effects of Epilepsy and Antiepileptic Drugs. Lancet, 357, 216-222.

[28]   Epilepsy Guidelines Group (2004) Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Females with Epilepsy. The Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd, London.

[29]   Kanner, A.M. and Palac, C. (2000) Depression in Epilepsy: A Common but Often Unrecognized Comorbid Malady. Epilepsy & Behaviour, 1, 37-51.

[30]   Besag, F.M. (1998) Lamotrigine in the Treatment of Epilepsy in People with Intellectual Disability. Journal of Intellectual disability and Research, 42, 50-56.

[31]   Brodie, M.J., Richens, A. and Yuen, A.W. (1995) Double-Blind Comparison of Lamotrigine and Carbamazepine in Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy: UK Lamotrigine/Carbamazepine Monotherapy Trial Group. Lancet, 345, 476-479.

[32]   Jr. Engel, J. (1996) Surgery for Seizures. New England Journal of Medicine, 334, 647-652.

[33]   Cherian, P.J. (2002) Radhakrishnan K Selection of Ideal Candidates for Epilepsy Surgery in Developing Countries. Neurology India, 50, 11-16.

[34]   Beghi, E. and Perucca, E. (1995) The Management of Epilepsy in the 1990s: Acquisitions, Uncertainties and Priorities for Future Research. Drugs, 49, 680-694.

[35]   Imam Sjahrir, M. (1996) Anti-Epileptic Drug Usage Pattern in Surabaya. Neurology Journal of Southeast Asia, 1, 71.

[36]   Remy, C. (1994) Clobazem in the Treatment of Epilepsy: A Review of the Literature. Epilepsia, 35, S88-S91.

[37]   Khulbe, P. and Juyal, V. (2011) Vinpocetine: A Step towards Memory Enhancement. International Journal of Pharma Research and Development, 2, 99-108.

[38]   Nowack, W.J. (2006) Psychiatric Disorders Associated with Epilepsy. E-Medicine Lecture.

[39]   Manchanda, R., Schaefer, B., McLachlan, R.S., Blume, W.T., Wiebe. S., Girvin, J.P., Parrent, A. and Derry, P.A. (1996) Psychiatric Disorders in Candidates for Surgery for Epilepsy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 61, 82-89.

[40]   Tarulli, A., Devinsky, O. and Alper, K. (2001) Progression of Postictal to Interictal Psychosis. Epilepsia, 42, 1468-1471.