At the end of 2014, China has 30 intangible cultural heritage projects been assessed by UNESCO as world-class intangible cultural heritage. In recent years, performance arts of intangible cultural heritage tourism products are increasingly sought after by tourists, such as Zhang Yimou’s impression series of large- scale real-life performance, which is well-known in China. Intangible cultural heritage Tourism products have become an important part of tourism. Tourist as the main body of tourism, its tourism satisfaction directly affects the scenic area brand. In order to provide visitors with a memorable and resonant experience for effective cultural heritage management, it is important to understand what factors affect visitors’ experience when they travel in a particular heritage site. According to statistics, from 2004 to 2013, “Impression of Liu Sanjie” has nearly 4500 performances, totally received more than 10 million viewers, which received foreign audience (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions) about 200 million people  . Visibly, foreign tourists became an important part of audience in the “impression of Liu Sanjie” real-life performance. Therefore, this article selected impression of Liu Sanjie real-life performance as a case to compare and analysis foreign and domestic tourists’ satisfaction of performance arts of intangible cultural heritage tourism respectively in the perspective of tourism experience.
The study aims to systematically examine various antecedents and consequences of tourists’ satisfaction and how these factors interact in the context of intangible cultural heritage destinations. Based on a two separate samples, one of Chinese domestic tourists and one of international tourists, two tourist loyalty models are estimated and their estimates compared to reveal the importance of cultural differences, which are expected to shape tourists’ cross-cultural behavior in this globalized world.
In an era of globalization, intangible cultural heritage destinations are expected to welcome a more culturally diverse body of tourists. This study sets out to shape the competitive advantage of intangible cultural heritage destinations, a better understanding of tourist satisfaction and its associated factors enable a better design of tourist activities and products to strengthen the destination identity and avoid the loss of distinctiveness in a market with a growing number of homogenous products. Furthermore, the analysis of the cross-cultural differences of tourists helps improve infrastructure and services to avoid potential culture shocks of international tourists and enhance their overall travel experience in a culturally different setting  .
2. Overview of Research Site
“Impression Liu Sanjie” performance is in Guilin, a national key scenic spots and historical and cultural city in China. Miao, Yao, Dong and other 28 ethnic minorities, accounting for the city’s total population of 8.5%, they maintain the ancient, strange, colorful folk customs. Unique geographical location, strong historical and cultural heritage and simple ethnic customs create a strong Guilin regional cultural atmosphere, combining with the landscape harmoniously. They create a feeling that “look at the mountains like seeing a painting, climbing the mountains like reading the history.” Impression Liu Sanjie “combines with the folk songs, ethnic customs, Lijiang River fishing and other geographical differences in the use of elements of sound, light, electricity, video and other means of innovative portfolio. In “Impression Liu Sanjie” performance, the whole story can be divided into four chapters: Red Folk Song, golden fishing boats, green home, silver ceremony. Each chapter is permeated with a strong regional culture    .
3. Research Method
3.1. Theoretical Basis: Tourist Satisfaction
Due to the service nature of the tourism industry, satisfaction is a crucial indicator reflecting the performance/quality of various tourism products and services. A tourist’s overall satisfaction with a destination can be specified as a function of his or her satisfaction with the individual attributes of all products and services  . Satisfaction has been associated with many desirable characteristics in tourism marketing research. These desirable outcomes include revisit intention, superior business performance, positive word-of-mouth recommendation, and willingness to stay longer at the tourist destination  .
According to Professor Fornell’s theory of customer satisfaction index, we construct the evaluation model of tourist satisfaction index (TDCSI). According to the principle of ACSI causality model, the TDCSI model consists of input variables (precondition variables) and outcome variables, among which customer satisfaction, customer perceived quality and customer perceived value determine the satisfaction degree of customers, they are the input variables of model (precondition variables). Expectation P disconfirmation theory was first proposed by Oliver (1980), in which consumers compare the service or quality of a product before consumption with the actual perception of consumption after consumption. It indicated that the actual higher than expected, when consumers will feel very satisfied, on the contrary, it will produce dissatisfaction  .
According to the theory of satisfaction, this study suggests that there is a certain difference between expectation and actual experience, which leads to the degree of satisfaction. Namely, the degree of satisfaction is the difference between the expectation before traveling and the actual experience after traveling. When the experience after the actual participation does not meet the expectation, the dissatisfaction is generated   . When the experience of the actual participation exceeds the expectation, the satisfaction is produced. At the same time, the overall satisfaction of tourists and the satisfaction of each experience factor are closely related   . Therefore, the theoretical framework of this paper as follow Figure 1.
3.2. Questionnaire Design
The questionnaire consists of three parts. The first part is the basic situation of sample. Involving the basic situation of the respondents, including gender, age,
Figure 1. A model of visitor’s satisfaction test and assessment    .
occupation, education, nationality and so on. In the second part, a new multi-level and multi-dimension evaluation system is developed based on the study about the satisfaction and the characteristics of “Impression of Liu Sanjie”  . In order to identify the Chinese and foreign tourists’ perception and evaluation of “Impression Liu Sanjie”, the paper designs three levels and five categories of 20 evaluation items as follow Table 1, it mainly reflects the set up of the stage, atmosphere experience, service experience, satisfy tourists’ curiosity, enhance tourists’ social value and other characteristics. In order to facilitate the collection and statistical analysis of the data, the index of tourists' measurement mainly adopts the attitude quantification method, which is measured by Likert Scale, is widely used in Chinese and abroad (1 = completely unimportant, 5 = completely important). The third part is three questions about the overall satisfaction of tourists and their evaluation model design: Do you satisfy the whole performance (1 = very dissatisfied, 5 = completely satisfied); Would you like to revisit the “Impression of Liu Sanjie” (1 = very reluctant, 5 = very willing to), this part also uses the Likert 5-level scale to measure.
Table 1. The index system of visitors’ satisfaction test to the impression of Liu Sanjie   .
3.3. Data Collection
Research Object: Tobetter understand the cross-cultural differences between foreign and domestic tourists, two sub-samples were surveyed: international tourists from Western countries and domestic tourists consisting of Chinese citizens only. According to the geographical distribution of Guilin’s international tourists, the ratio of tourists from foreign and China was designed to be 1:1 using stratified random sampling in order to obtain a more representative sample of foreign tourists. For domestic tourists, convenience sampling was employed. During the survey, local residents were filtered out by screening questions such as the residence and duration of stay in Guilin. Therefore, 300 tourists were selected from tourists from different places such as Impression of Liu Sanjie performance spot, Guilin Li River and Yangshuo town.
The questionnaire was designed in both English and Chinese, with a total of 300 questionnaires, assigning 150 Chinese and 150 English questionnaires respectively. There were 145 effective questionnaires and 96.67% valid questionnaires for Chinese tourists. There were 143 valid questionnaires for foreign tourists with an effective rate of 95.33%. The valid data are encoded and input into the computer. The statistical analysis and SPSS 19.0 are used to statistically analyze the data and draw the conclusion. The reliability coefficient (a) = 0.8820, Standardized item alpha = 0.9002, indicating that the reliability of the survey data (reliability) is high. Baseline data, P values were greater than 0.05, indicating that foreign and domestic tourists satisfaction survey data of the indicators are comparable.
4. Analysis of the Survey Results
4.1. Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents
Statistics show that, from the gender composition, Chinese and foreign show the results are different, the majority of Chinese tourists are women, accounting for 56.6%, men only 43.4%; while foreign men dominated, 58.9%, women only 41.1%. The age structure of Chinese and foreign tourists are mainly young and middle age, between 18 to 45 years old, accounting for more than 75%, the difference is that foreign tourists in the elderly is higher, more than 45 years old accounted for a total of 25.6%, while Chinese only 5.8%. In recent years, the proportion of middle-aged and elderly tourists has been increasing year by year, while the proportion of cultural heritage tourism is low, which is due to the difference between Chinese and foreign tourists in the pursuit of experience.
2) Occupation and Education Level
Chinese and foreign tourists’ occupation is basically the same; students occupy more than half of the market. The proportion was 50.9% and 53.8%, followed by enterprises and management personnel and professional science and education personnel. The share of foreign high-level enterprise management personnel and retirees is obviously higher than that of China. From education level, the differences between Chinese and foreign tourists is very large, but both is based in bachelor degree, Chinese tourists who have bachelor degree or higher accounted for only 56.8%, of which bachelor degree accounted for 51.2%, 5.6% for Master degree, while foreign up to 80.4%, of which bachelor degree, master degree and doctor degree reached 56.5%, 21.2% and 2.3%, respectively. It indicates that the impression of Liu Sanjie’s international tourism market is made up with high cultural level tourists.
3) Nationality (region)
Chinese mainland tourists accounted for the largest proportion, 82%, followed by Taiwan tourists (10%), Hong Kong and Macao tourists (8%). Southeast Asian tourists make up the largest number of tourists in tourism market, as high as 70%, followed by Europe and the United States (18%) and Japan and South Korea (12%).
4.2. Chinese Tourists Satisfaction Analysis of the “Impression of Liu Sanjie”
Through sorting out the data of tourist satisfaction evaluation of 20 evaluation factors about “Impression of Liu Sanjie” performance, the order of satisfaction was as follows: performance experience > atmosphere experience > facilities experience > participation experience > service experience. In the survey, Chinese tourists suggest that the performance experience is the most satisfied item of “Impression of Liu Sanjie”, it indicates that the “Impression of Liu Sanjie” real-life performance as the national cultural heritage has a strong attraction for tourists. There are three reasons: 1) since its premiere in 2005, it has maintained a good reputation and view rate, and the performance is located in scenic landscapes Guilin, it makes the performance become natural scenery and a cultural heritage tourism product. After 10 years’ development and innovation, it already has a mature business model  ; 2) the performance has national characteristics, a strong sense of national atmosphere, so Chinese tourists from south to north ,from east to west can experience the different cultural and life style without going abroad, and the contents of performance are easily understand, having wide audience; 3) the performance reflects the authenticity of intangible cultural heritage, most tourists experience the authentic cultural characteristics of the southwest national minority, the actor’s performance, lighting, special effects and other high-tech integration make the tourist satisfaction improve.
The lowest item of Chinese tourists satisfaction is service experience, 76.25 points, compared with the performance experience, a difference of 11.35 points. This is mainly due to most tourists are Chinese, the high ticket price is not acceptable for Chinese tourists, and the waiting time before the show and the time required for exit is too long, these three factors make the Chinese tourists satisfaction drop. But it surpassed 60 points (the general point), indicating that Chinese tourists have general satisfaction on service experience.
4.3. Foreign Tourists Satisfaction Analysis of the “Impression of Liu Sanjie”
The order of foreign tourists satisfaction is: atmosphere experience > service experience > performance experience > facilities experience > participation experience. The most satisfied item is atmosphere experience, which shows the “Impression of Liu Sanjie” real-life performance’s location and atmospheric effect have been recognized internationally. Architectural style, cultural atmosphere and the stage from the auditorium location is also just right, making the audience can be fully integrated into the local cultural atmosphere in the viewing process. The lowest satisfied item is participation experience, which reflects that foreign tourists emphasis on participation and experiential activities in tourism. “Impression of Liu Sanjie” is the real-life performance, compared with other tourism products, it lacks of interaction with the audience. There are some interactive features are regional characteristics, such as actors hold torches to the audience while dancing, national language greetings to the audience and so on, if the foreign tourists do not have deeply understanding of the contents of this show, these details can easily be overlooked by foreign tourists, so that foreign visitors suggest that the participation experience of performance is little, the performance emphasis on performance and atmosphere experience too much.
4.4. The Comparison of Chinese and Foreign Tourists Satisfaction Analysis on the “Impression of Liu Sanjie”
The overall satisfaction of all visitors is 3.86 points, indicating that Chinese and foreign tourists’ overall perception of the performance is tending to satisfaction. (T = 2.982, P = 0.033 < 0.05), the main reason for the difference is that the performance contains most Chinese intangible cultural heritage connotation, foreign tourists have different understanding and feelings to Chinese culture, the cognition of Chinese and foreign tourists to the cultural experience is different, and the reference object which affects the satisfaction has its own difference, which makes Chinese tourists are more satisfied than foreign tourists.
One of the most dissatisfied Chinese tourists is the service experience, while the score of service experience in foreign tourists is the second (as follow Table 2). This contrast shows that Chinese tourists have higher requirements in service experience. Most visitors think that audience are in different grades of seats, VIP seats and ordinary seats’ difference of price is large, besides the distance from the stage and the angle of viewing is different the other aspects of enjoyment service are the same, high ticket prices is disproportionate with Chinese tourists income. In order to meet the needs of foreign tourists, the performance makes effort on explanation manual and the staff’s quality, such as the explanation manual marked the bilingual language, in order to allow foreign tourists have a better understanding of the performance. The staff can speak English for communicating with foreign audiences in time.
In order to further understand the impact of factors on tourist satisfaction, the survey compares the variables factors one by one. From the P value of each factor, (P = 0.033, P < 0.05). The difference between the two groups was significant (P = 0.033, P < 0.05), the service experience and performance experience. Specific analysis is as follows:
Table 2. Factor comparison of Chinese and foreign visitors’ satisfaction to the impression of Liu Sanjie.
1) The service experience (P = 0.033 < 0.05): The service experience has significant difference in tourism perception comparison between Chinese and foreign tourists. This is mainly due to Chinese tourists on the “ticket price” factor, a lower score of 72.35 points. Many tourists buy tickets in the group, individual tourists buy their own tickets through travel agent website, because there is no uniform ticket channels, the same type seat cost different in different channels, and the seat is extracted randomly, tourists are dissatisfied with the different level of price. The foreign tourists is not sensitive about the ticket price compare with Chinese tourists, their high sensitivity is time, therefore, the waiting time and exit time have become the lowest scores, 75.22 points. Nevertheless, foreign tourists’ service experience score is still higher than the Chinese tourists.
2) The performance experience (P = 0.025 < 0.05): In this item, we can see the difference from its composition of factors (as follow Table 3), in the “performance content”, “performance authenticity” and “actor’s popularity”, these three factors, showing significant differences. In the factor “performance authenticity”, the Chinese and foreign satisfaction scores difference of 8.12 points, indicating that many foreign tourists think that “Impression of Liu Sanjie” real- life performance is a bit far from the original, commercialization is too strong, it has a certain artificial, stagewise feature. It is clear that tourism development has been mature in Yangshuo town; the degree of authenticity about national history and culture has alienated compare with the original undeveloped villages. In order to meet the needs of different people to enjoy the performance, “Impression of Liu Sanjie” adds artistic color in the original folk, but relatively preserve the complement of the Liu Sanjie ballads’ authenticity. Second, as a performance, it focuses more on its market share and economic interests, however, it reflects the local ethnic culture, which is attractive and meet the tourists’ folk and heritage tourism need. Third, the rhythm and melody of music get high satisfaction,
Table 3. Factor comparison of Chinese and foreign visitors’ satisfaction to the performance and appreciation experience of the impression of Liu Sanjie.
it indicates that Chinese and foreign tourists recognize the added effect of performance. We cannot deny that because of the differences between Chinese and Western cultures, the impact on the performance appreciation score is very large, for example, foreign tourists think that the original performance is original inhabitants performance without any artistic processing, but in the eyes of Chinese aesthetic standards, original performance is based on the processing of art, so in the “performance authenticity” factor, the Chinese and foreign tourists’ score are different, mainly caused by Chinese and foreign tourists’ different understanding on the intangible cultural heritage authenticity  .
5. Conclusions and Recommendations
The survey shows that: 1) Chinese and foreign tourists have positive attitude to the “impression of Liu Sanjie” real-life performance; 2) The overall satisfaction of Chinese tourists on the “impression of Liu Sanjie” performance is generally higher than foreign tourists; 3) To some extent, Chinese and foreign tourists have high loyalty to the “impression of Liu Sanjie” real-life performance; 4) The highest and the lowest satisfaction factors of Chinese and foreign tourists are different.
Since the feeling of intangible cultural heritage may vary across people from different cultural backgrounds, the paper highlighted the cross-cultural differences between foreign and domestic Chinese tourists in the model.
According to the condition of tourist satisfaction, this paper divides the various factors which affect the satisfaction into four areas: excellent area, continuing developing area, improvement area and urgent improvement area  . In the factors of Chinese and foreign tourists satisfaction, the satisfaction of factors above 80 points is classified as “excellent area”; the satisfaction factors are between 70 and 80 points as the “continuing develop area”; the satisfaction factors are between 60 and 70 as “improvement area”; the other factors below 60 are “urgent improvement area”.
1) For the “excellent area”, the three factors “cultural atmosphere”, “stage position” and “performance content” should be the highest satisfaction factor  .
2) For the “continuing develop area”, most of the factors in this area belong to the facility experience and performance experience. Therefore, it is necessary to keep improving the advantages of scenery, actor’s dress and dress, rhythm and melody of music and so on, but also pay attention to other factors with lower scores’ impact on the overall satisfaction.
3) “Distance from the stage” and “time to enter and leave” are the factors that the Chinese and foreign tourists want to improve. Therefore, it is necessary to improve audiences’ comfort. We can add a small screen for audience at different angles to enhance viewing effect, at the same time, in the performance management, improving the efficiency of tourists entering and leaving time, shortening the waiting time for visitors.
4) For the “urgent improvement area”, the two factors in the participation experience need to be improved. The impression of Liu Sanjie real-life performance belongs to the cultural products, when audience feel involved, the performance’s culture can be spread out, we can target the different needs of Chinese and foreign audience, interspersing interactive activities in the performance appropriately, and pay attention to the details of the publicity  . In the performance brochure, describing ethnic customs and etiquette expression briefly, which helps visitors understand the content of the entire performance, so that tourists would not ignore the interaction between audience and actors.
What’s more, in an era characterized by growing competition amongst tourist places to attract tourists, it is important for a destination to establish a competitive advantage by differentiating its tourism products and services from those of its competitors. Based on the empirical results from this study, nurturing tourists’ satisfaction can be a feasible way to sustain tourism development in long run since satisfaction plays a role in enhancing tourist loyalty. After validating the influenced factors of satisfaction, we advise intangible cultural heritage destination marketing organizations to promote tourists’ satisfaction through rebranding and marketing, for example, to facilitate tourists with high levels of personal involvement during the performance. To fulfill the functional needs of tourists and improve service quality, tourist information centers could provide useful travel information (e.g. translated travel brochures) that would help visiting (especially international) tourists understand local cultural elements. It is important for these centers to be staffed by employees who can communicate with international tourists to recommend services and products. Furthermore, various featured and culture-related performances can greatly evoke the involvement of potential tourists, which in turn, lead to a closer emotion tie to the destination. Lastly, further investment on tourism-related infrastructure and facilities seem necessary to improve the perceived attractiveness and tourist satisfaction.