JTST  Vol.2 No.4 , November 2016
Influence of Polyester Resin Treatment on Jute Fabrics for Geotextile Applications
Abstract: In this study, jute woven fabrics (1 × 1 plain, twill, zigzag and diamond weave) were manufactured from 100% raw jute yarn. The fabric specimens were treated by 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% unsaturated polyester resin where styrene monomer used as a solvent and 1% methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) was used as initiator. Two bar pressure was applied for complete wetting of the fabric by a Padder and curing was done at 130?C for 10 minutes. The physico-mechanical characteristics of untreated and treated samples were examined and evaluated. It was revealed that moisture content (MC) and water absorbency of the treated specimens were decreased with the increase of resin percentage (%) in the fabrics. MC and water absorbency were maximum decreased up to 50.23% and 60.14% respectively by 25% resin treatment. On the other hand, bending length (BL), flexural rigidity (FR), flexural modulus (FM) and tensile strength (TS) were enhanced with the increase of resin percentage in the fabrics which resulted higher fabric stiffness. The maximum improvement of BL, FR, FM and TS were found to be 6.67%, 56.04%, 10.57% and 18.75% respectively in comparison to untreated sample. Soil degradation tests exhibited that 33.59% TS loss occurred for untreated specimens where only 8.04% loss of TS found for 25% resin treated one. Furthermore, jute based twill, zigzag and diamond fabrics were also treated by 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% resin, then measured their TS and compared with plain fabrics. It was revealed that plain fabrics have superior TS over other fabrics. It was also evident that TS enhanced for all the fabrics after resin treatment and maximum increase found for all the fabrics up to 25% resin treatment.
Cite this paper: Saha, J. , Chandra Das, S. , Rahman, M. , Siddiquee, M. and Ahmad Khan, M. (2016) Influence of Polyester Resin Treatment on Jute Fabrics for Geotextile Applications. Journal of Textile Science and Technology, 2, 67-80. doi: 10.4236/jtst.2016.24009.

[1]   Bledzki, A.K., and Gassan, J. (1999) Composites Reinforced with Cellulose Based Fibers. Progress in Polymer Science, 24, 221-274.

[2]   Khan, M.A., Hossain, M. and Ali, K.M.I. (1999) Jute Composite with MMA by Gamma and UV Radiations in the Presence of Additives. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 74, 900-906.<900::AID-APP16>3.0.CO;2-J

[3]   Khan, R.A., Haque, M.E., Khan, M.A., Zaman, H.U., Mohamad, K.J.F. and Ahmad, A. (2010) Studies on the Relative Degradation and Interfacial Properties between Jute/Polypropylene and Jute/Natural Rubber Composites. Journal of Thermoplastics Composite Materials, 25, 665-681.

[4]   Razera, I.A.T. and Frollini, E. (2004) Composites Based on Jute Fibers and Phenolic Matrices: Properties of Fibers and Composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 91, 1077-1085.

[5]   Koerner, R.M. (2012) Desigining with Geosynthetics. 6th Edition, Xlibris Publishing Co., New York.

[6]   Mitchell, D.J., Barton, A.P., Fullen, M.A., Hocking, T.J., Zhi, W.B. and Zheng, Y. (2003) Field Studies of the Effects of Jute Geotextiles on Runoff and Erosion in Shropshire, UK. Soil Use and Management, 19, 182-184.

[7]   Khan, J.A., Khan, M.A., Islam, R. and Gafur, A. (2010) Mechanical, Thermal and Interfacial Properties of Jute Fabric-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Potassium Dichromate. Materials Sciences and Applications, 1, 350-357.

[8]   Zaman, H.U., Khan, M.A., Khan, R.A., Noor-A-Alam, M. and Bhuian, Z.H. (2012) Studies of the Physico-Mechanical Interfacial, and Degradation Properties of Jute Fabrics/Melamine Composites. International Journal of Polymeric Materials, 61, 748-758.

[9]   Kafi, A.A., Abedin, M.Z., Beg, M.D.H., Pickering, K.L. and Khan, M.A. (2006) Study on the Mechanical Properties of Jute/Glass Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Hybrid Composites: Effect of Surface Modification by Ultraviolet Radiation. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 25, 575-588.

[10]   Miah, M.J., Khan, M.A. and Khan, R.A. (2011) Fabrication and Characterization of Jute Fiber Reinforced Low Density Polyethylene Based Composites: Effects of Chemical Treatment. Journal of Scientific Research, 3, 249-259.

[11]   Edeerozey, A.M., Akil, M.H., Azhar, A.B. and Ariffin, M.I.Z. (2007) Chemical Modification of Kenaf Fibers. Materials Letters, 61, 2023-2025.

[12]   Pejic, B.M., Kostic, M.M., Skundric, P.D. and Praskalo, J.Z. (2008) The Effects of Hemicelluloses and Lignin Removal on Water Uptake Behavior of Hemp Fibers. Bioresource and Technology, 99, 7152-7159.

[13]   Rosa, M.F., Chiou, B.S., Medeiros, E.S., Wood, D.F., Williams, T.G., Mattoso, L.H., Orts, W.J. and Imam, S.H. (2009) Effect of Fiber Treatment on Tensile and Thermal Properties of Starch/Ethylene Vinyl Copolymers/Coir Biocomposites. Bioresource Technology, 100, 5196-5202.

[14]   Hill, C.A.S. and Khalil, A. (2000) Effect of Fiber Treatments on Mechanical Properties of Coir or Oil Palm Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 78, 1685-1697.<1685::AID-APP150>3.0.CO;2-U

[15]   Gassan, J. and Bledzki, A.K. (1999) Alkali Treatment of Jute Fibers: Relationship between Structure and Mechanical Properties. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 71, 623-629.<623::AID-APP14>3.0.CO;2-K

[16]   Gassan, J. and Bledzki, A.K. (1999) Possibilities for Improving the Mechanical Properties of Jute/Epoxy Composites by Alkali Treatment of Fibers. Composites Science and Technology, 59, 1303-1309.

[17]   Prasad, S.V., Pavithran, C. and Rohatgi, P.K. (1983) Alkali Treatment of Coir Fibers for Coir-Polyester Composites. Journal of Materials Science, 18, 1443-1454.

[18]   Ray, D. and Sarkar, B.K. (2001) Characterization of Alkali-Treated Jute Fibers for Physical and Mechanical Properties. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 80, 1013-1020.

[19]   Munawar, S.S., Umemura, K., Tanaka, K.F. and Kawai, S. (2008) Effects of Alkali, Mild Steam and Chitosan Treatments on the Properties of Pineapple, Ramie, and Sansevieria Fiber Bundles. Journal of Wood Science, 54, 28-35.

[20]   Pickering, K.L., Efendy, M.G.A. and Le, T.M. (2016) A Review of Recent Developments in Natural Fiber Composites and Their Mechanical Performance. Composites: Part A, 83, 98-112.

[21]   Valadez-Gonzalez, A., Cervantes-Uc, J.M., Olayo, R. and Herrera-Franco, P.J. (1999) Effect of Fiber Surface Treatment on the Fiber-Matrix Bond Strength of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 30, 309-320.

[22]   Herrera-Franco, P.J. and Valadez-Gonzalez, A. (2005) A Study of the Mechanical Properties of Short Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 36, 597-608.

[23]   Chou, T.W. and Kelly, A. (1980) Mechanical Properties of Composites. Annual Review of Materials Science, 10, 229-259.

[24]   Bledzki, A.K., Fink, H.P. and Specht, K. (2004) Unidirectional Hemp and Flax EP- and PP-Composites: Influence of Defined Fiber Treatments. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 93, 2150-2156.

[25]   Khalil, H.P.S.A., Ismail, H., Ahmad, M.N., Ariffin, A. and Hassan, K. (2001) The Effect of Various Anhydride Modifications on Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches Reinforced Polyester Composites. Polymer International, 50, 395-402.

[26]   Bledzki, A.K., Reihmane, S. and Gassan, J. (1996) Properties and Modification Methods for Vegetable Fibers for Natural Fiber Composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 59, 1329-1336.<1329::AID-APP17>3.0.CO;2-0

[27]   Mukherjee, R.N., Sanyal, S.K. and Pal, S.K. (1983) Studies on Jute Fiber Reinforced Composites with Polyesteramide Polyols as Interfacial Agent. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 28, 3029.

[28]   Zadorecki, P. and Flodin, P.J. (1985) Surface Modification of Cellulose Fibers. II. The Effect of Cellulose Fiber Treatment on the Performance of Cellulose-Polyester Composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 30, 3971-3983.

[29]   Ray, D., Sarkar, B.K., Basak, R.K. and Rana, A.K. (2004) Thermal Behavior of Vinyl Ester Resin Matrix Composites Reinforced with Alkali-Treated Jute Fibers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 94, 123-129.

[30]   Rowell, R.M. (2001) Performance Driven Composites from Lignocellulosic Resources. Proceedings of the International Conference on Science and Technology of Composite Materials (COMAT 2001), Mar Del Plata, 10-12 December 2001, 29-32.

[31]   Basu, G. and Chattopadhyay, S.N. (1996) Ambient Temperature Bleaching of Jute Fiber—Its Effect on Yarn Properties and Dyeing Behavior. Indian Journal of Fiber & Textile Research, 21, 217-222.

[32]   Pan, N.C., Chattopadhyay, S.N. and Day, A. (2001) Jute Yarn Bleaching at Ambient Temperature with Different Pretreatments. Textile Asia, 3, 40-43.

[33]   Chattopadhyay, D.P. (1998) Introduction, Chemistry and Preparatory Processes of Jute. Colourage, 45, 23-35.

[34]   Pan, N.C., Day, A. and Mahalanabis, K.K. (1999) Chemical Composition of Jute and its Estimation. Man-Made Textiles in India, 9, 467-473.

[35]   Sever, K., Sarikanat, M., Seki, Y., Erkan, G. and Erdogan, U.H. (2010) The Mechanical Properties of γ-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy Silane-Treated Jute/Polyester Composites. Journal of Composite Materials, 44, 1913-1924.

[36]   Das, S.C., Paul, D., Siddiquee, M.A.B., Islam, J.M.M. and Khan, M.A. (2016) Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mechanical Behavior of Jute Fabric Reinforced Polyester Composites, ICMIEE-PI-160-167. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanical, Industrial and Energy Engi-neering, Khulna, Bangladesh, 26-27 December 2016.

[37]   Patel, R.B., Patel, K.S., Patel, R.N. and Patel, K.D. (2014) Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Modified Polyester Resin and Jute Composites. Der Chemica Sinica, 5, 47-54.

[38]   Fonseca, V.M., Fernandes, V.J., de Carvalho, L.H. and d’Almeida, J.R.M. (2004) Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Sisal-Polyester Composites as a Function of the Polyester Matrix Formulation. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 94, 1209-1217.

[39]   Okonkwo, U.C., Chukwunyelu, C.E., Oweziem, B.U. and Ekuase, A. (2015) Evaluation and Optimization of Tensile Strength Responses of Coir Fibres Reinforced Polyester Matrix Composites (CFRP) Using Taguchi Robust Design. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 3, 225-236.

[40]   Rout, J., Misra, M., Tripathy, S.S., Nayak, S.K. and Mohanty, A.K. (2001) The Influence of Fiber Treatment on the Performance of Coir-Polyester Composites. Composites Science and Technology, 61, 1303-1310.

[41]   Satyanarayana, K.G., Sukumaran, K., Kulkarni, A.G., Pillai, S.G.K. and Rohatgi, P.K. (1983) Performance of Banana Fabric-Polyester Resin Composites. In: Marshall, I.H., Ed., Composite Structures 2, Session XIV, Springer-Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 535-548.

[42]   Devi, L.U., Joseph, K., Nair, K.C.M. and Thomas, S. (2004) Ageing Studies of Pineapple Leaf Fiber-Reinforced Polyester Composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 94, 503-510.

[43]   Dhakal, H., Zhang, Z. and Richardson, M. (2007) Effect of Water Absorption on the Mechanical Properties of Hemp Fibre Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites. Composites Science and Technology, 67, 1674-1683.

[44]   Mwaikambo, L. and Bisanda, E. (1999) The Performance of Cotton/Kapok Fabric-Polyester Composites. Polymer Testing, 18, 181-98.

[45]   Hu, J. (2008) BS 4784 Determination of Commercial Mass of Consignment of Textiles Part-I, Fabric Testing. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles, Cambridge, 33.

[46]   Hu, J. (2008) BS 3449 Testing the Resistance of Fabric to Water Absorption (Static Immersion Test), Fabric Testing. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles, Cambridge, 233-234.

[47]   Booth, J.E. (1968) Principles of Textile Testing. 3rd Edition, Newnes-Butterworth, London, 283-284.

[48]   Hu, J. (2008) ASTM D 5034-94 Grab Test, Fabric Testing. Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles, Cambridge, 94-95.

[49]   Swain, P.K., Das, M. and Nayak, P.L. (2015) Biodegradation Studies of Chitosan-Polycaprolactone (PCL) Nanocomposite in Soil Burial Test. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 23, 253-258.