AS  Vol.8 No.7 , July 2017
Quantitative Analysis of the Relationship between Ruminal Redox Potential and pH in Dairy Cattle: Influence of Dietary Characteristics
Abstract: The ruminal redox potential (Eh) can reflect the microbiological activity and dynamics of fermentation in the rumen. It might be an important indicator of rumen fermentation in combination with pH. However, the ruminal Eh has been rarely studied in dairy cows due to the difficulty of its measurement, and the relationship between ruminal Eh and pH is not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between ruminal Eh and pH of dairy cows by meta-analysis of systematic measurements from different experiments. A database was constructed from 22 experiments on cannulated dairy cattle including 57 dietary treatments. The ruminal pH and Eh were measured without air contact between 0 and 8 h post-feeding. The results demonstrated a quadratic correlation between ruminal Eh and pH with a reliable within-animal variation (Eh = -1697 + 540.7 pH -47.7 pH2, nobservation = 70, nanimal = 26, P < 0.001, RMSE = 56, AIC = 597). The dietary characteristics (NDF, NDFf, OM, starch, degradable starch, soluble sugars contents, and the dietary ionic balance) influencing the ruminal pH also affected the ruminal Eh, but not always to the same extent. Some of them still influenced the relationship between ruminal Eh and pH. While the mechanism of the interaction between ruminal Eh and pH remains to be elucidated, it would be interesting to associate Eh to microbial profile, ruminal VFA concentration and milk production performance in future studies.
Cite this paper: Huang, Y. , Philippe Marden, J. , Benchaar, C. , Julien, C. , Auclair, E. and Bayourthe, C. (2017) Quantitative Analysis of the Relationship between Ruminal Redox Potential and pH in Dairy Cattle: Influence of Dietary Characteristics. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 616-630. doi: 10.4236/as.2017.87047.

[1]   Husson, O. (2013) Redox potential (Eh) and pH as Drivers of Soil/Plant/ Microorganism Systems, A Transdisciplinary Overview Pointing to Integrative Opportunities for Agronomy. Plant Soil, 362, 389-417.

[2]   Falkowski, P.G., Fenchel, T. and Delong, E.F. (2008) The Microbial Engines That Drive Earth’s Biogeochemical Cycles. Science, 320, 1034-1039.

[3]   Brasca, M., Morandi, S., Lodi, R. and Tamburini, A. (2007) Redox Potential to Discriminate among Species of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103, 1516-1524.

[4]   Tomlinson, J.W. and Kilmartin, P.A. (1997) Measurement of the Redox Potential of Wine. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 27, 1125-1134.

[5]   Marounek, M., Bartos, S. and Kalachnyuk, G.I. (1982) Dynamics of the Redox Potential and rH of the Rumen Fluid of Goats. Physiologia Bohemoslovenica, 31, 369-374.

[6]   Marden, J.P., Bayourthe, C., Enjalbert, F. and Moncoulon, R. (2005) A New Device for Measuring Kinetics of Ruminal pH and Redox Potential in Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, 277-281.

[7]   Julien, C., Marden, J.P., Bonnefont, C., Moncoulon, R., Auclair, E., Monteils, V. and Bayourthe, C. (2010) Effects of Varying Proportions of Concentrates on Ruminal-Reducing Power and Bacterial Community Structure in Dry Dairy Cows Fed Hay-Based Diets. Animal, 4, 1641-1646.

[8]   Broberg, G. (1958) Measurements of the Redox Potential in Rumen Contents. IV. In vivo measurements. Nordisk Veterinaermedicin, 10, 263-268.

[9]   De Laune, R.D. and Reddy, K.R. (2005) Redox Potential. In: Hillel, D., Ed., Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, Elsevier Ltd., Amsterdam, 366-371.

[10]   Pinloche, E., McEwan, N., Marden, J.P., Bayourthe, C., Auclair, E. and Newbold, C. J. (2013) The Effects of a Probiotic Yeast on the Bacterial Diversity and Population Structure in the Rumen of Cattle. PloS ONE, 8, e67824.

[11]   Sauvant, D. and Peyraud, J.L. (2010) Diet Formulation and Risk Assessment of Acidosis. INRA Productions Animales, 23, 333-342.

[12]   Plaizier, J.C., Khafipour, E., Li, S., Gozho, G.N. and Krause, D.O. (2012) Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA), Endotoxins and Health Consequences. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 172, 9-21.

[13]   Andrade, P.V.D., Giger-Reverdin, S. and Sauvant, D. (2002) Relationship between Two Parameters (pH and Redox Potential) Characterizing Rumen Status. Rencontres Recherches Ruminants, 9, 332.

[14]   Giger-Reverdin, S., Rigalma, K., Desnoyers, M., Sauvant, D. and Duvaux-Ponter, C. (2014) Effect of Concentrate Level on Feeding Behavior and Rumen and Blood Parameters in Dairy Goats, Relationships between Behavioral and Physiological Parameters and Effect of Between-Animal Variability. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 4367-4378.

[15]   Penner, G.B., Beauchemin, K.A. and Mutsvangwa, T. (2006) An Evaluation of the Accuracy and Precision of a Stand-Alone Submersible Continuous Ruminal pH Measurement System. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 2132-2140.

[16]   Qin, C., Bu, D., Sun, P., Zhao, X., Zhang, P. and Wang, J. (2017) Effects of Corn Straw or Mixed Forage Diet on Rumen Fermentation Parameters of Lactating Cows Using a Wireless Data Logger. Animal Science, 88, 259-266.

[17]   Mathieu, F., Jouany, J.P., Senaud, J., Bohatier, J., Bertin, G. and Mercier, M. (1996) The Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae on Fermentations in the Rumen of Faunated and Defaunated Sheep: Pprotozoal and Probiotics Interactions. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 36, 271-287.

[18]   Marden, J.P., Julien, C., Monteils, V., Auclair, E., Moncoulon, R. and Bayourthe, C. (2008) How Does Live Yeast Differ from Sodium Bicarbonate to Stabilize Ruminal pH in High Yielding Dairy Cows? Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 3528-3535.

[19]   Barry, T.N., Thompson, A. and Armstrong, D.G. (1977) Rumen Fermentation Studies on Two Contrasting Diets. 1. Some Characteristics of the in Vivo Fermentation, with Special Reference to the Composition of the Gas Phase, Oxidation/Reduction State and Volatile Fatty Acid Proportions. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 89, 183-195.

[20]   Michelland, R.J., Monteils, V., Combes, S., Cauquil, L., Gidenne, T. and Fortun-Lamothe, L. (2011) Changes over Time in the Bacterial Communities Associated with Fluid and Food Particles and the Ruminal Parameters in the Bovine Rumen before and after a Dietary Change. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 57, 629-637.

[21]   Monteils, V., Rey, M., Cauquil, L., Troegeler-Meynadier, A., Silberberg, M. and Combes, S. (2011) Random Changes in the Heifer Rumen in Bacterial Community Structure, Physico-Chemical and Fermentation Parameters, and in Vitro Fiber Degradation. Livestock Science, 141, 104-112.

[22]   Julien, C., Marden, J.P., Auclair, E., Moncoulon, R., Cauquil, L., Peyraud, J.L. and Bayourthe, C. (2015) Interaction between Live Yeast and Dietary Rumen Degradable Protein Level: Effects on Diet Utilization in Early-Lactating Dairy Cows. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 1-13.

[23]   Marden, J.P. (2007) The Mode of Action of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sc 47 in Ruminants: A Thermodynamic Approach in Dairy Cows. PhD Thesis, INP Toulouse, Toulouse, 195 p.

[24]   Julien, C. (2011) Interactions between Diet Composition and Live Yeast Sc47 (ACTISAF R): Effects on Redox Status and Fermentative Activity in the Rumen of Dairy Cows. PhD Thesis, INP Toulouse, Toulouse, 235.

[25]   Anonymous (1988) Order of 18 April 1988 Laying down the Conditions for Granting Authorization to Experiment. Journal Officiel de la République Francaise, 5608-5610.

[26]   Streeter, M.N., Wagner, D.G., Hibberd, C.A. and Owens, F.N. (1990) Comparison of Corn with Four Sorghum Grain Hybrids: Site and Extent of Digestion in Steers. Journal of Animal Science, 68, 3429-3440.

[27]   Chapoutot, P., Nozière, P. and Sauvant, D. (2013) “Systool”, a New Calculator for the New French “Systali” Project. 64th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science, Nantes, 138.

[28]   Sauvant, D. and Nozière, P. (2016) Quantification of the Main Digestive Processes in Ruminants: The Equations Involved in the Renewed Energy and Protein Feed Evaluation Systems. Animal, 10, 755-770.

[29]   Ross, J.G., Spears, J.W. and Garlich, J.D. (1994) Dietary Electrolyte Balance Effects on Performance and Metabolic Characteristics on Finishing Steers. Journal of Animal Science, 72, 1600-1607.

[30]   Meschy, F. (2010) Mineral Nutrition of Ruminants. Editions Quae, Versailles.

[31]   Apper-Bossard, E., Faverdin, P., Meschy, F. and Peyraud, J.L. (2010) Effects of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on Ruminal Metabolism and Blood Acid-Base Regulation in Dairy Cows Receiving Two Contrasting Levels of Concentrate in Diets. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 4196-4210.

[32]   INRA (2007) Feeding of Cattle, Sheep and Goats. Tables INRA 2007, Editions Quae, Versailles.

[33]   Nordstrom, D.K. (1977) Thermochemical Redox Equilibria of Zo Bell’s Solution. Geochimicaet Cosmochimica Acta, 41, 1835-1841.

[34]   Huang, Y., Julien, C., Marden, J.P. and Bayourthe, C. (2016) Relationship between Ruminal Redox Potential and pH in Dairy Cattle. Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the ESVCN, Berlin, 123.

[35]   Sauvant, D., Schmidely, P., Daudin, J.J. and St-Pierre, N.R. (2008) Meta-Analyses of Experimental Data in Animal Nutrition. Animal, 2, 1203-1214.

[36]   St-Pierre, N.R. (2001) Invited Review: Integrating Quantitative Findings from Multiple Studies Using Mixed Model Methodology. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 741-755.

[37]   Wang, Z. and Goonewardene, L.A. (2004) The Use of MIXED Models in the Analysis of Animal Experiments with Repeated Measures Data. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 84, 1-11.

[38]   Krizova, L., Richter, M., Trinacty, J., Ríha, J. and Kumprechtova, D. (2011) The Effect of Feeding Live Yeast Cultures on Ruminal pH and Redox Potential in Dry Cows as Continuously Measured by a New Wireless Device. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 56, 37-45.

[39]   Pitt, R.E., Van Kessel, J.S., Fox, D.G., Pell, A.N., Barry, M.C. and Van Soest, P.J. (1996) Prediction of Ruminal Volatile Fatty Acids and pH within the Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Journal of Animal Science, 74, 226-244.

[40]   Kolver, E.S. and De Veth, M.J. (2002) Prediction of Ruminal pH from Pasture-Based Diets. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 1255-1266.

[41]   Meschy, F. and Peyraud, J.L. (2004) Strong Ion Content of Forages, Dietary Cation Anion Difference and Acid-Base Balance Values. Rencontres Recherches Ruminants, 11, 255-258.

[42]   Apper-Bossard, E., Peyraud, J.L. and Dourmad, J.Y. (2009) Effects of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on Performance and Acid-Base Status: A Review. INRA Productions Animales, 22, 117-130.

[43]   Apper-Bossard, E., Peyraud, J.L., Faverdin, P. and Meschy, F. (2006) Changing Dietary Cation-Anion Difference for Dairy Cows Fed with Two Contrasting Levels of Concentrate in Diets. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 749-760.

[44]   Hu, W. and Murphy, M.R. (2004) Dietary Cation-Anion Difference Effects on Performance and Acid-Base Status of Lactating Dairy Cows: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 2222-2229.

[45]   Iwaniuk, M.E., Weidman, A.E. and Erdman, R.A. (2015) The Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference Concentration and Cation Source on Milk Production and Feed Efficiency in Lactating Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 98, 1950-1960.

[46]   Giger-Reverdin, S., Duvaux-Ponter, C., Rigalma, K. and Sauvant, D. (2006) Effect of Chewing Behaviour on Ruminal Redox Potential Variability in Dairy Goats. Rencontres Recherches Ruminants, 13, 138.

[47]   Krishtalik, L.I. (2003) pH-Dependent Redox Potential: How to Use It Correctly in the Activation Energy Analysis. Biochimicaet Biophysica Acta, 1604, 13-21.

[48]   Bohn, H.L. (1969) The EMF of Platinum Electrodes in Dilute Solutions and Its Relation to Soil pH. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 33, 639-640.

[49]   Friedman, N., Shriker, E., Gold, B., Durman, T., Zarecki, R. and Mizrahi, I. (2017) Diet-Induced Changes in Redox Potential Underlie Compositional Shifts in the Rumen Archaeal Community. Environmental Microbiology, 191, 174-184.