GEP  Vol.5 No.7 , July 2017
Anthropogenic Impacts on the Distribution and Biodiversity of Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Water Quality of the Boufekrane River, Meknes, Morocco
Abstract: The area of the city of Meknes (Morocco) undergoes anthropic pressure, which acts mainly on the rivers. River water is used, without preliminary treatment, for farm irrigation. A study of the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Boufekrane River (Meknes) was conducted. Four pristine stations from the upstream and two stations at the downstream receiving anthropogenic impacts were selected along the River. For 12 consecutive months (from January to December 2010), based on the SEQ-V.2 scoring system, water quality index classes, the upstream stations recorded significantly higher biological monitoring scores and better water quality indices than those of the downstream. Four variables are involved actively in the individualization of the physico-chemical environment: COD, dissolved oxygen, TSS and temperature. The total number of macrobenthic taxa and their overall richness indices and diversity indices were significantly higher at the upstream stations than at the downstream stations. The relationships between the physicochemical and the macrobenthic data were investigated by biotypology analysis (PCA and FCA) and Pearson correlation analysis. The analyses showed that the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and the electric conductivity of the river water. This study also highlighted the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the distribution and species diversity of macrobenthic invertebrate. Some sensitive (Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera) and resistant species (Oligochaeta such as Tubifex sp.) are identified as potential bioindicators of clean and polluted river ecosystems, respectively, in Morocco rivers. The data obtained in this study supported the use of the bioindicator concept (Innovative Biotechniques for controlling water quality) for North Africa rivers because it is more efficient than conventional methods.
Cite this paper: Karrouch, L. , Chahlaoui, A. and Essahale, A. (2017) Anthropogenic Impacts on the Distribution and Biodiversity of Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Water Quality of the Boufekrane River, Meknes, Morocco. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 5, 173-195. doi: 10.4236/gep.2017.57014.

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