Back
 GEP  Vol.5 No.7 , July 2017
Anthropogenic Impacts on the Distribution and Biodiversity of Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Water Quality of the Boufekrane River, Meknes, Morocco
Abstract: The area of the city of Meknes (Morocco) undergoes anthropic pressure, which acts mainly on the rivers. River water is used, without preliminary treatment, for farm irrigation. A study of the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Boufekrane River (Meknes) was conducted. Four pristine stations from the upstream and two stations at the downstream receiving anthropogenic impacts were selected along the River. For 12 consecutive months (from January to December 2010), based on the SEQ-V.2 scoring system, water quality index classes, the upstream stations recorded significantly higher biological monitoring scores and better water quality indices than those of the downstream. Four variables are involved actively in the individualization of the physico-chemical environment: COD, dissolved oxygen, TSS and temperature. The total number of macrobenthic taxa and their overall richness indices and diversity indices were significantly higher at the upstream stations than at the downstream stations. The relationships between the physicochemical and the macrobenthic data were investigated by biotypology analysis (PCA and FCA) and Pearson correlation analysis. The analyses showed that the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and the electric conductivity of the river water. This study also highlighted the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the distribution and species diversity of macrobenthic invertebrate. Some sensitive (Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera) and resistant species (Oligochaeta such as Tubifex sp.) are identified as potential bioindicators of clean and polluted river ecosystems, respectively, in Morocco rivers. The data obtained in this study supported the use of the bioindicator concept (Innovative Biotechniques for controlling water quality) for North Africa rivers because it is more efficient than conventional methods.
Cite this paper: Karrouch, L. , Chahlaoui, A. and Essahale, A. (2017) Anthropogenic Impacts on the Distribution and Biodiversity of Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Water Quality of the Boufekrane River, Meknes, Morocco. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 5, 173-195. doi: 10.4236/gep.2017.57014.
References

[1]   Food and Agriculture Organization (FOA) (2010) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Rome.

[2]   United Nations (1992) Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Resolutions Adopted by the Conference. Vol. 1. United Nations, Rio de Janeiro.

[3]   Xu, J. (2004) A Study of Anthropogenic Seasonal Rivers in China. Catena, 55, 17-32.

[4]   Cairns, J. and Der Schalie, W.H.V.D. (1980) Review Paper: Biological Monitoring. Part Early Warning Systems. Water Research, 14, 1179-1196.

[5]   Cairns, J. (1981) Review Paper: Biological Monitoring. Part VI Future Needs. Water Research, 15, 941-952.

[6]   Matthews, R., Buikema, A.L., Cairns, J. and Rodgers, J.H. (1982) Review Paper: Biological Monitoring. Part IIA—Receiving System Functional Methods, Relationships and Indices. Water Research, 16, 129-139.

[7]   Herricks, E. and Cairns, J. (1982) Biological Monitoring. Part III Receiving System Methodology Based on Community Structure. Water Research, 16, 141-153.

[8]   Buikema, A.L., Niederlehner, B.R. and Cairn, J. (1982) Biological Monitoring. Part IV Toxicity Testing. Water Research, 16, 239-262.

[9]   Cherry, D.S. and Cairns, J. (1982) Biological Monitoring. Part V Preference and Avoidance Studies. Water Research, 16, 263-301.

[10]   Arienzo, M., Adamo, P., Bianco, M.R. and Violante, P. (2001) Impact of Land Use and Urban Runoff on the Contamination of the Sarno River Basin in Southern Italy. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 131, 349-366.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011908019933

[11]   Ogbeibu, A.E. and Oribhabor, B.J. (2002) Ecological Impact of River Impoundment Using Benthic Macro-Invertebrates as Indicators. Water Research, 36, 2427-2436.

[12]   Mason, C.F. and Parr, B.L. (2003) Long-Term Trends in Water Quality and Their Impact on Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in Eutrophic Lowland Rivers. Water Research, 37, 2969-2979.

[13]   Armitage, D., Moss, D., Wright, J.F. and Furse, M. (1983) The Performance of a New Biological Water Quality Score System Based on Macro-Invertebrates over a Wide Range of Unpolluted Running-Water Sites. Water Research, 17, 333-347.

[14]   Hellawell, J.M. (1986) Biological Indicators of Freshwater Pollution and Environmental Management. In: Melanby, K., Ed., Pollution Monitoring Series, 546 p.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-4315-5

[15]   Metcalfe, J.L. (1989) Biological Water Quality Assessment of Running Waters Based on Macro-Invertebrate Communities: History and Present Status in Europe. Environmental Pollution, 60, 101-139.

[16]   Wright, J.F., Furse, M.T., Armitage, P.D. and Moss, D. (1993) New Procedures for Identifying Running-Water Sites Subject to Environmental Stress and for Evaluating Sites for Conservation, Based on the Macro-Invertebrate Fauna. Arch Hydrobiologia, 127, 319-326.

[17]   Pinel-Alloul, M.G., Lapierre, L. and Willsie, A. (1996) Macrobenthic Community as a Biological Indicator of Ecological and Toxicological Factors in Lake Saint-Francois (Quebec). Environmental Pollution, 91, 65-68.

[18]   MacNeil, C., Dick, A., Bigsby, E., Elwood, R.W., Montgomery, I., Gibbins, N. and Kelly, W. (2002) The Validity of the Gammarus: Asellusratio as an Index of Organic Pollution: Abiotic and Biotic Influences. Water Research, 36, 75-84.

[19]   Nedeau, E.J., Merritt, R.W. and Kaufman, M.G. (2003) The Effect of an Industrial Effluent on an Urban Stream Benthic Community: Water Quality vs. Habitat Quality. Environmental Pollution, 123, 1-13.

[20]   Parinet, A., Boukari, S.O.B. and Adima, A. (2005) Evaluation de l’etat d’une eau de riviere par analyse multidimentionnelle utilisant certains paramétres caratéristiques de la matiére organique dissoute. Revue des sciences de l’eau, 18, 133-163.

[21]   Crosa, G., Froebrich, J., Nikolayenko, V., Stefani, F., Galli, P. and Calamari, D. (2006) Spatial and Seasonal Variations in the Water Quality of the Amu Darya River (Central Asia). Water Research, 40, 2237-2245.

[22]   Sage, L., Bennasser, L., Steiman, R. and Seigle-Murandi, F. (1997) Fungal Microflora Biodiversity as a Function of Pollution in Oued Sebou (Morocco). Chemosphere, 35, 751-759.

[23]   Khamar, M., Bouya, D. and Ronneau, C. (2000) Pollution metallique et organique des eaux et des sediments d’un cours d’eau marocain par les rejets liquides urbains. Water Quality Research Journal, 35, 147-161.

[24]   Azzaoui, S., El Hanbali, M. and Leblanc, M. (2002) Copper, Lead, Iron and Manganese in the Sebou Drainage Basin; Sources and Impact on Surface Water Quality. Water Quality Research Journal, 37, 773-784.

[25]   MCI (2009) Ministére du Commerce et de l’Industrie, Direction Générale de l’Industrie, Etude de l’impact des rejets industriels sur la qualite des eaux de l’oued Sebou, rapport de synthese. Scandia Consults International AB, Juillet 2009.

[26]   P.D.M. (2004) Plan Directeur Wilaya de Meknés. Rapport, Genève, 180 p.

[27]   Rodier, J. (1984) L’analyse de l’eau: Eaux naturelles, eaux résiduaires, eau de mer. Dunod, Paris.

[28]   Association francaise de normalisation (AFNOR) NF/Environneemnt-1992.

[29]   Baroudi, M. (1984) Contribution à l’étude des oligochètes, étude taxonomique de quelques genres d’enchytraida, étude faunistiques des oligochètes aquatiques du Maroc. Thése 3° cycle Univ. Moulay Ismail Fac. Sci. Meknès.

[30]   Lafont, M. (1983) Introduction pratique à la systématique des organismes des eaux continentale francaises. 3: Annélides Oligochètes. Bulletin mensuel de la Société linnéenne de Lyon, 52, 108-135.
https://doi.org/10.3406/linly.1983.10583

[31]   Amors, C. (1984) Crustacés, Introduction pratique à la systématique des organismes des eaux continentales francaises. Bulletin mensuel de la Société linnéenne de Lyon, 53-63.

[32]   Ramdani, M., Dakki, M., Kharboua, M. and EL Aagbani, A. (1987) Les Gastéropodes dulcicoles du Maroc, inventaire commenté. Bulletin de l’Institut Scientifique de Rabat, 11, 135-140.

[33]   Tachet, H., Richoux, P., Bournaud, M. and Usseglio-Polatera, P. (2000) Invertébrés d’eau douce. Systématique, Biologie, Ecologie. CNRS Editions, Paris, 588.

[34]   Aguesse and Dakki (1982) Les Odonates de l’Europe Occidentale, du Nord de l’Afrique et des Iles Atlantiques. Masson Cie, Paris, 258 p.

[35]   Vigneux, E., Keith, P., Noel, P.Y., et al. (1993) Atlas préliminaire des Crustacés Décapodes d’eau douce de France. Patrimoines Naturels, 14, 1-56.

[36]   Berrahou, A., Cellot, B. and Richter, P. (2002) Les macroinvertébrées benthiques de la Moulouya (Maroc). Bull. Ecol., 223-234.

[37]   Bouzidi, A. (1989) Recherches hydrobiologiques sur le cours d’eau des massifs du Haut-Atlas. Bioécologie des macroinvértébrés et distribution spatiale des peuplements. Doctorat d’état Uni. Aix-Marseille, fac. Sci. Tech. Sai-Jérome, 190 p.

[38]   Vergon, J.-P. and Bourgeois, C. (1993) Introduction pratique à la systématique des organismes des eaux continentales francaises 10: Diptères chironomides (larves aquatiques) T. 1: Caractères généraux, sousfamilles et tribus. Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, 62, 101-132.

[39]   Dakki, M. (1992) Etude National sur la biodiversité Faune aquatique continentale (Invertébrés et Poissons) Projet PNUE/GEF/6105-92, 121.

[40]   Beauger, A. (2008) Bio-évaluation de la qualité de l’eau: établissement d’un protocole d’échantillonnage simplifié, basé sur la collecte des macroinvertébrés benthiques sur les seuils des rivières à charge de fond graveleuse. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II; Université d’Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2008. Francais.
https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-00730658/document

[41]   Ludwig, J.A. and Reynolds, J.F. (1988) Statistical Ecology: A Primer on Methods and Computing. Wiley, New York, 85-106.

[42]   Chevenet, F. (1994) A Fuzzy Coding Approach for the Analysis of Long-Term Ecological Data. Freshwater Biology, 31, 295-309.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.1994.tb01742.x

[43]   Chahlaoui, A., Cugny, P., Lek, S., Zaid, A. and Ramdani, M. (1997) Analyse quantitative de la qualité de l’eau de l’oued Boufekrane (Maroc). Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse, 131, 71-76.

[44]   Vega, M., Pardo, R., Barrado, E. and Deban, L. (1998) Assessment of Seasonal and Polluting Effects on the Quality of River Water by Exploratory Data Analysis. Water Research, 32, 3581-3592.

[45]   WHO (1984) International Standards for Drinking Water. 3rd Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Vol. 2: Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[46]   DeZuane, J. (1997) Handbook of Drinking Water Quality. 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken.

[47]   Bournaud, M. and Keck, G. (1980) Les prélbvements de macroinvertébrés benthiques en tant que revelateurs de la physionornie d’une rivibre. Annls Limnologie, 16, 55-75.
https://doi.org/10.1051/limn/1980009

[48]   Brodnjak, D., Dobnik, D., Novi, M. and Zupan, J. (2002) Chemometrics charactersation of the Quality of River Water. Analytica Chimica Acta, 462, 87-100.

[49]   Gilpin, B., James, T., Nourozi, F., Saunders, D., Scholes, P. and Savill, M. (2003) The Use of Chemical and Molecular Microbial Indicators for Faecal Source Identification. Water Science & Technology, 47, 39-43.

[50]   Cherghou, S., Yaakoubi, F., Benabid, M. and Badri, A. (2002) Contribution à l’étude du régime alimentairedu barbeau (Barbus barbus callensis Valenciennes, 1842) d’un cours d’eau du Moyen-Atlas (Maroc): Oued Boufekrane. Revue des sciences de l’eau, 15, 153-163.
https://doi.org/10.7202/705443ar

[51]   De Lagarde, J. (1995) Initiation à l’analyse de données. 3 ième Edition, Dunod, Paris.

[52]   Essahale, A. and Karrouch, L. (2015) Contribution to the Study of Oil Mills Impact on the Environment in el hajeb Province. Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l’Environnement, 76, 355-365.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1775878515001617

[53]   Gaufin, A.R. (1973) Use of Aquatic Invertebrates in the Assessment of Water Quality. In: Cairns, J.J. and Dickson, K.L., Eds., Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality, STP 528, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 96-116.
https://doi.org/10.1520/stp34719s

[54]   Teles, L.F.O. (1994) A New Methodology for Biological Water Quality Assessment. International Association of Theoretical & Applied Limnology, 25, 1942-1944.

[55]   Boyle, T.P. and Fraleigh, H.D. (2003) Natural and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting the Structure of the Structure of the Benthic Macro-Invertebrate Community in an Effluent-Dominated Reach of the Santa Cruz River, AZ. Ecological Indicators, 3, 93-117.

[56]   Bustos-Baez, S. and Frid, C.C. (2003) Using Indicator Species to Assess the State of Macro-Benthic Communities. Hydrobiologia, 496,299-309.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026169520547

[57]   Brinkhurst, R.O. (1967) The Distribution of Aquatic Oligochaetes in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Limnology and Oceanography, 12, 137-143.
https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1967.12.1.0137

[58]   Slepukhina, T.D. (1984) Comparison of Different Methods of Water Quality Evaluation by Means of Oligochaetes. Hydrobiology, 115, 183-186.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00027914

[59]   Barbour, M.T., Gerritsen, J., Snyder, B.D. and Stribling, J.B. (1999) Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macro-Invertebrates and Fish. 2nd Edition, Office of Water, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, EPA-841-B-99-002.

[60]   Castella, E., Husson, O. and Hakon, A. (2001) Macrobenthic Invertebrate Richness and Composition along a Latitudinal Gradient of European Glacier-Fed Streams. Freshwater Biology, 46, 1811-1831.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.2001.00860.x

[61]   Yap, K., Rahim Ismail, A., Ismail, A. and Tan, S.G. (2003) Species Diversity of Macrobenthic Invertebrates in the Semenyih River, Peninsular Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 26, 139-146.

[62]   Harrel, R. and Smith, S. (2002) Macrobenthic Community Structure before, during and after Implementation of the Clean Water Act in the Neches River Estuary (Texas). Hydrobiologia, 474, 213-222.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016596123558

[63]   Rosenberg, D.M. and Resh, V.H. (1993) Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macro-Invertebrates. Chapman and Hall, New York, 488 p.

[64]   Gray, J.S. (1989) Effects of the Environmental Stress on Species Rich Assemblages. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 37, 19-39.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.1989.tb02003.x

[65]   Kerans, B.L., Karr, J.R. and Ahlstedt, S.A. (1992) Aquatic Invertebrate Assemblages: Spatial and Temporal Differences among Sampling Protocols. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 11, 390.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1467559

[66]   Mucha, A.P., Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D. and Bordalo, A.A. (2004) Vertical Distribution of the Macrobenthic Community and Its Relationships to Trace Metals and Natural Sediment Characteristics in the Lower Douro Estuary, Portugal. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 59, 663-673.

 
 
Top