ABSTRACT Nanostructures of boron nitride have attracted a great deal of interest due to their potential applications that comprise a broad range of topics, including biomedical technology, since it presents good chemical stability and suggests good biological inertia. This paper reports a facile and effective synthesis based on CVD process with new conditions to produce boron nitride nanotubes in higher amount using boron powder, ammonium nitrate and hematite as catalysts in tubular furnace, without using extreme conditions. The characterization of the material was carried out by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the results, it was possible to verify the production of a hexagonal BN nanotube filled with Fe nanoparticles. It was possible to understand the reactions involved in synthesis process, and also confirm the formation of hexagonal boron nitride nanotubes with iron nanoparticles as catalysts. Depending on the final use, samples need to be purified to analyze their unique properties in some bioapplications. In the other hand, sometimes BNNTs containing Fe nanoparticles have potential for use in therapeutic drug, gene and radionuclide delivery, and radio frequency methods for the catabolism of tumors via hyperthermia. In this sense, some application-related studies on BNNTs such as biocompatibility tests have also been investigated in both pure and BN nanotube filled with Fe.
Cite this paper
nullT. Ferreira, P. Silva, R. Santos and E. Sousa, "A Novel Synthesis Route to Produce Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Bioapplications," Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2011, pp. 426-434. doi: 10.4236/jbnb.2011.24052.
 T. Tsoncheva, J. Rosenholm, C. V. Teixeira, M. Dimitrov, M. Linden, C. Minchev, “Preparation, characterization and catalytic behavior in methanol decomposition of nanosized iron oxide particles within large pore ordered mesoporous silicas”, Microporous and Mesoporous Ma- terials, Vol. 89,2006, pp. 209-218.
 A. Sousa, E. M. B. Sousa, “Influence of synthesis tem- perature on the structural characteristics of mesoporous silica”, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 352, 2006, pp. 3451-3456.
 M. Ishigami, S. Aloni, A. Zettl, “Properties of Boron Ni- tride Nanotubes”, American Institute of Physics, Vol. 696, 2003, 94.
 M. Engler, C. Lesniak, R. Damasch, B. Ruisinger, J. Eichler, “Hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) Applications from Metallurgy to Cosmetics” German Ceramic Society, Vol. 84, 2007 pp. 49-53.
 M. W. Smith, K. C. Jordan, C. Park, W. Kim, P. T. Lille- hei, R. Crook, J. S. Harrison, “Very long single- and few-walled boron nitride nanotubes via the pressurized vapor/condenser method”, Nanotechnology, Vol. 20, 2009, 505604.
 R. T. Paine, C. K Narula, “Synthetic routes to boron nitride”, Chemical Reviews, Vol. 90 (1), 1990, pp. 73-91.
 A. Loiseau, F. Willaime, N. Demoncy, G. Hug, H. Pascard, “Boron nitride nanotubes with reduced numbers of layers synthesized by arc discharge”, Physical Review Letters, Vol. 76, 1996, pp. 4737-4740.
 R. Ma, D. Golberg, Y. Bando and T. Sasaki. “Syntheses and properties of B-C-N and BN nanostructures”, Philo- sophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Vol. 362, 2004, pp. 2161-2186
 X. Chen, P. Wu, M. Rousseas, D. Okawa, Z. Gartner, A. Zettl, C.Y.N.R. Bertozzi, “Boron Nitride Nanotubes Are Noncytotoxic and Can Be Functionalized for Interaction with Proteins and Cells”, Journal of the American Che- mical Society, Vol. 131, 2009, pp. 890-891.
 W. Wang, Y. Bando, C. Zhi, W. Fu, E. Wang, and D. Golberg, “Aqueous Noncovalent Functionalization and Controlled Near-Surface Carbon Doping of Multiwalled Boron Nitride Nanotubes”, Journal of American Chemi- cal Society, Vol. 130 (26), 2008, pp.8144-8145.
 G. Ciofani, V. Raffa, A. Menciassi, A. Cuschieri, “Boron nitride nanotubes: An innovative tool for nanomedicine” Nanotoday, Vol. 84 (1), 2009, pp. 8-10.
 S. Iijima, “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon” Na- ture, Vol. 354 (7), 1991, pp. 56-58.
 15 - M. Terrones, J.M. Romo-Herrera, E. Cruz-Silva, F. López-Urías, E. Munoz-Sandoval, J.J. Velázquez-Salazar, H. Terrones, Y. Bando, D. Golberg, “Pure and doped boron nitride nanotubes”, Materials Today, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 30-38.
 T. Oku, M. Kuno, H. Kitahara, “Formation, atomic struc- tures and properties of boron nitride and carbon nanocage fullerene materials”, International Journal of Inorganic Materials, Vol. 3 (7), 2001, pp. 597-612.
 Y. Pan, K.F. Huo, Y.M. Hu, J.J. Fu, Y.N. Lu, Z.D. Dai, Z. Hu, Y. Chen, “Boron nitride nanocages synthesized by a moderate thermochemical approach”, Small, Vol. 1(2), 2005, pp. 1199-1203.
 B. Rushton, R. Mokaya, “Mesoporous boron nitride and boron-nitride-carbon materials from mesoporous silica templates”, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 18, 2008, pp. 235-241.
 L.Y. Chen, Y.L. Gu, L. Shi, Z.H. Yang, J.H. Ma, Y.T. Qian, “A room-temperature approach to boron nitride hollow spheres”, Solid State Communication, Vol. 130 (8), 2004, pp. 537-540.
 R.S. Kalyoncu, “BN powder synthesis at low tempera- tures”. Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Vol. 6, 1985, pp. 1356-1363.
 L. Gao, J. Li, “Preparation of Nanostructured Hexagonal Boron Nitride Powder”, Journal of American Ceramic Society, Vol. 86, 2003, pp. 1982-1984.
 C. Morris, T. Skalak, “Static Magnetic Fields Alter Arteriolar Tone InVivo”, Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 1-9.
 Q.A. Pankhurst, J. Connolly, S.K. Jones, J. Dobson, “Applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 36, 2003, pp. R167-R181.
 G. Ciofani, V. Raffa, A. Menciassi, A. Cuschieri, “Cyto- compatibility, Interactions, and Uptake of Polyethyle- neimine-Coated Boron Nitride Nanotubes by Living Cells: Confirmation of Their Potential for Biomedical Applica- tions”, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 101 (4), 2008, pp. 850-858.
 C. Zhi, Y. Bando, C. Tang, D. Golberg, “Boron nitride nanotubes”, Materials Science and Engineering R, Vol. 70, 2010, pp. 92-111.
 H. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Yu, J. S. Williams, “Purification of boron nitride nanotubes”, Chemical Physics Letters, Vol. 425, 2006, pp. 315-319.
 R.I Freshney, “Culture of animal cells: a manual of basic technique (fourth ed.)”, Wiley-Liss, 2000, pp. 269-283.
 X. Hao, M. Yub, Z. Cui, X. Xu, Q. Wang, M. Jiang, “The effect of temperature on the synthesis of BN nanocrys- tals” Journal of crystal growth, Vol. 241, 2002 pp. 124.
 J. Vilcarromero, M.N.P. Carre?o, I. Pereyra, “Mecha- mical properties of boron nitride thin films obtained by RF-PECVD at low temperatures” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 373, 2000, pp. 273-276.
 Su-Yuan Xie, W. Wang, K. A. Shiral Fernando, X. Wang, Y. Lin, Ya-Ping Sun, “Solubilization of boron nitride na- notubes”, Chemical Communications, 2005, pp. 3670- 3672.
 H. E. ?amurlu, N. Sevin? , Y. Topkaya, “Role of boron carbide in carbothermic formation of hexagonal boron ni- tride”, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 41, 2006, pp. 4921-4927.
 G. Ciofani, S. Danti, D. D’Alessandro, S. Moscato, A. Menciassi, “Assessing cytotoxicity of boron nitride nano- tubes: Interference with the MTT assay”, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 394, 2010, pp. 405-411.
 D. Lahiri, F. Rouzaud, T. Richard, A. K. Keshri, S. R. Bakshi,L. Kos, A. Agarwal, “Boron nitride nanotube re- inforced polylactide-polycaprolactone copolymer compo- site: Mechanical properties and cytocompatibility with osteoblasts and macrophages in vitro” Acta Biomaterialia, Vol. 6, 2010, pp. 3524-3533.
 S.M. Hussain, K.L. Hess, J.M. Gearhart, K.T. Geiss, J.J. Schlager, “In vitro toxicity of nanoparticles in BRL 3A rat liver cells”, Toxicology in Vitro, Vol. 19, 2005, pp. 975-983.