Back
 Health  Vol.9 No.7 , July 2017
The Effects of Parental ADHD Symptoms on Parenting Behaviors
Abstract:
Adults suffering from attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) often display high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. These symptoms might interfere with skills that are necessary for optimal parenting such as consequent and emotionally responsive behavior towards the child. Therefore, the present review aims at investigating how parental ADHD symptoms influence parenting, thereby including specific parental behaviors of both effective behavior control and emotional responsiveness. In order to identify eligible studies, a systematic search was conducted. Studies were included in this review if at least some of the investigated parents suffered from ADHD or heightened ADHD symptoms, and if the studies focused on specific parenting behaviors as outcome measures. 14 studies yielded the inclusion criteria. Across studies, parental ADHD symptoms were negatively associated with consistent discipline, parental involvement and positive parenting, and positively associated with lax and over-reactive parenting, intrusiveness and negative emotions. The core symptom of inattention had stronger negative effects on parenting than impulsivity and hyperactivity. Across studies, the gender of parents had inconsistent effects. All in all, the present review shows that parental ADHD is associated with serious impairments in parenting. Therefore, parents with ADHD should be specially addressed and trained in the context of children ADHD treatment.
Cite this paper: Friedrich, A. , Moning, J. , Weiss, J. and Schlarb, A. (2017) The Effects of Parental ADHD Symptoms on Parenting Behaviors. Health, 9, 1054-1074. doi: 10.4236/health.2017.97077.
References

[1]   Johnston, C., Mash, E.J., Miller, N. and Ninowski, J.E. (2012) Parenting in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 215-228.

[2]   Faraone, S.V. and Biederman, J. (2005) What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9, 384-391.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054705281478

[3]   Barkley, R.A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L. and Fletcher, K. (2006) Young Adult Outcome of Hyperactive Children: Adaptive Functioning in Major Life Activities. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 192-202.
https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000189134.97436.e2

[4]   Smalley, S.L., McGough, J.J., Del’Homme, M., et al. (2000) Familial Clustering of Symptoms and Disruptive Behaviors in Multiplex Families with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1135-1143.
https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200009000-00013

[5]   Takeda, T., Stotesbery, K., Power, T., et al. (2010) Parental ADHD Status and Its Association with Proband ADHD Subtype and Severity. The Journal of Pediatrics, 157, 995-1000.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.05.053

[6]   Starck, M., Grünwald, J. and Schlarb, A. (2016) Occurrence of ADHD in Parents of ADHD Children in a Clinical Sample. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 12, 581-588.
https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S100238

[7]   Fayyad, J., de Graaf, R., Kessler, R., et al. (2007) Cross-National Prevalence and Correlates of Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 402-409.
https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.106.034389

[8]   McGough, J.J. and Barkley, R.A. (2004) Diagnostic Controversies in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1948-1956.
https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.161.11.1948

[9]   Mannuzza, S., Castellanos, F.X., Roizen, E.R., Hutchison, J.A., Lashua, E.C. and Klein, R.G. (2011) Impact of the Impairment Criterion in the Diagnosis of Adult ADHD: 33-Year Follow-Up Study of Boys with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 15, 122-129.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054709359907

[10]   Darling, N. and Steinberg, L. (1993) Parenting Style as Context: An Integrative Model. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487-496.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.3.487

[11]   Higgins, J.P.T., Altman, D.G., Gotzsche, P.C., et al. (2011) The Cochrane Collaboration’s Tool for Assessing Risk of Bias in Randomised Trials. BMJ, 343, d5928.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d5928

[12]   Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J. and Altman, D.G. (2009) Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Medicine, 6, e1000097.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097

[13]   Babinski, D.E., Pelham Jr., W.E., Molina, B.S.G., et al. (2016) Maternal ADHD, Parenting, and Psychopathology among Mothers of Adolescents with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 20, 458-468.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054712461688

[14]   Banks, T., Ninowski, J.E., Mash, E.J. and Semple, D.L. (2008) Parenting Behavior and Cognitions in a Community Sample of Mothers with and without Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 17, 28-43.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-007-9139-0

[15]   Chen, M. and Johnston, C. (2007) Maternal Inattention and Impulsivity and Parenting Behaviors. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 36, 455-468.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410701448570

[16]   Chronis-Tuscano, A., Raggi, V.L., Clarke, T.L., Rooney, M.E., Diaz, Y. and Pian, J. (2008) Associations between Maternal Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 1237-1250.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9246-4

[17]   Mazursky-Horowitz, H., Felton, J.W., MacPherson, L., et al. (2015) Maternal Emotion Regulation Mediates the Association between Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 121-131.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9894-5

[18]   Psychogiou, L., Daley, D.M., Thompson, M.J. and Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2008) Do Maternal Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Exacerbate or Ameliorate the Negative Effect of Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms on Parenting? Development and Psychopathology, 20, 121-137.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000060

[19]   Semple, D.L., Mash, E.J., Ninowski, J.E. and Benzies, K.M. (2011) The Relation between Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mother-Infant Interaction. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 460-472.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-010-9413-4

[20]   Watkins, S.J. and Mash, E.J. (2009) Sub-Clinical Levels of Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Self-Reported Parental Cognitions and Behaviours in Mothers of Young Infants. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 27, 70-88.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02646830801918448

[21]   Lui, J.H.L., Johnston, C., Lee, C.M. and Lee-Flynn, S.C. (2013) Parental ADHD Symptoms and Self-Reports of Positive Parenting. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81, 988-998.
https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033490

[22]   Mokrova, I., O’Brien, M., Calkins, S. and Keane, S. (2010) Parental ADHD Symptomology and Ineffective Parenting: The Connecting Link of Home Chaos. Parenting: Science and Practice, 10, 119-135.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15295190903212844

[23]   Psychogiou, L., Daley, D., Thompson, M. and Sonuga-Barke, E. (2007) Testing the Interactive Effect of Parent and Child ADHD on Parenting in Mothers and Fathers: A Further Test of the Similarity-Fit Hypothesis. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25, 419-433.
https://doi.org/10.1348/026151006X170281

[24]   Tung, I., Brammer, W.A., Li, J.J. and Lee, S.S. (2015) Parenting Behavior Mediates the Intergenerational Association of Parent and Child Offspring ADHD Symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44, 787-799.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2014.913250

[25]   Williamson, D., Johnston, C., Noyes, A., Stewart, K. and Weiss, M.D. (2017) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Mothers and Fathers: Family Level Interactions in Relation to Parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45, 485-500.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0235-8

[26]   Wymbs, B.T., Wymbs, F.A. and Dawson, A.E. (2015) Child ADHD and ODD Behavior Interacts with Parent ADHD Symptoms to Worsen Parenting and Interparental Communication. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 107-119.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9887-4

[27]   Oxman, A.D. and Group, G.W. (2004) Grading Quality of Evidence and Strength of Recommendations. BMJ, 328, 1490-1494.
https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.328.7454.1490

[28]   Chronis, A.M., Lahey, B.B., Pelham Jr., W.E., et al. (2007) Maternal Depression and Early Positive Parenting Predict Future Conduct Problems in Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Developmental Psychology, 43, 70-82.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.70

[29]   Chronis-Tuscano, A., Rooney, M., Seymour, K.E., et al. (2010) Effects of Maternal Stimulant Medication on Observed Parenting in Mother-Child Dyads with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39, 581-587.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2010.486326

[30]   Chronis-Tuscano, A., O’Brien, K.A., Johnston, C., et al. (2011) The Relation between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training Is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 1047-1057.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9518-2

[31]   Chronis-Tuscano, A. and Stein, M.A. (2012) Pharmacotherapy for Parents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impact on Maternal ADHD and Parenting. CNS Drugs, 26, 725-732.
https://doi.org/10.2165/11633910-000000000-00000

[32]   Agha, S.S., Zammit, S., Thapar, A. and Langley, K. (2013) Are Parental ADHD Problems Associated with a More Severe Clinical Presentation and Greater Family Adversity in Children with ADHD? European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 22, 369-377.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0378-x

[33]   Breaux, R.P., Brown, H.R. and Harvey, E.A. (2017) Mediators and Moderators of the Relation between Parental ADHD Symptomatology and the Early Development of Child ADHD and ODD Symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45, 443-456.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0213-1

[34]   Ellis, B. and Nigg, J. (2009) Parenting Practices and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: New Findings Suggest Partial Specificity of Effects. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 146-154.
https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819176d0

[35]   Griggs, M.S. and Mikami, A.Y. (2011) The Role of Maternal and Child ADHD Symptoms in Shaping Interpersonal Relationships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 39, 437-449.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-010-9464-4

[36]   Moroney, E., Tung, I., Brammer, W.A., Peris, T.S. and Lee, S.S. (2017) Externalizing Outcomes of Youth with and without ADHD: Time-Varying Prediction by Parental ADHD and Mediated Effects. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45, 457-470.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0215-z

[37]   Romirowsky, A.M. and Chronis-Tuscano, A. (2014) Paternal ADHD Symptoms and Child Conduct Problems: Is Father Involvement Always Beneficial? Child: Care, Health and Development, 40, 706-714.
https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12092

[38]   van Steijn, D.J., Oerlemans, A.M., de Ruiter, S.W., van Aken, M.A.G., Buitelaar, J.K. and Rommelse, N.N.J. (2013) Are Parental Autism Spectrum Disorder and/or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Related to Parenting Styles in Families with ASD (+ADHD) Affected Children? European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 22, 671-681.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-013-0408-8

[39]   Wymbs, B.T., Dawson, A.E., Egan, T.E., Sacchetti, G.M., Tams, S.T. and Wymbs, F.A. (2017) ADHD and Depression Symptoms in Parent Couples Predict Response to Child ADHD and ODD Behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45, 471-484.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0220-2

 
 
Top