Paraconsistent Algorithm Extractor of Contradiction Effects - *Paraextrctr*_{ctr}

Author(s)
Joao Inacio Da Silva Filho,
Germano Lambert-Torres,
Luiz Fernando Pompeo Ferrara,
Maurício Conceição Mário,
Marcos Rosa dos Santos,
Alexandre Shozo Onuki,
José de Melo Camargo,
Alexandre Rocco

ABSTRACT

Nowadays networks of analyses based in non-classic logics are used with success in the treatment of uncertainties. The characteristic of accepting the contradiction in his structure is the main cause of the methodologies based in Paraconsistent Logic is ideals for applications in systems of analyses and decision making. In this work we presented an algorithm based in Paraconsistent logic capable to extract in a gradual way the effects of the contradiction in originated signals of information of uncertain knowledge database. The Algorithm Paraconsistent Extractor of Contradiction effects -*Paraextrctr*_{ctr} is formed with base in fundamental concepts of the Paraconsistent Annotated Logic with annotation of two values (PAL2v) it can be applied in filters of networks of analyses of signal information where uncertain and contradictory signals can be present. The process of extraction of the effect of the contradiction is always begun by the largest inconsistency degree among two signals that belong to the group that is in analysis. In the end of the analysis it is found a consensus value. In this work we presented numeric example and one example of application of the *Paraextrctr*_{ctr} in Load Profile Forecast used in support to decision of the operation in an Electric Power System, but his application potentiality is demonstrated in several fields of the Artificial Intelligence.

Nowadays networks of analyses based in non-classic logics are used with success in the treatment of uncertainties. The characteristic of accepting the contradiction in his structure is the main cause of the methodologies based in Paraconsistent Logic is ideals for applications in systems of analyses and decision making. In this work we presented an algorithm based in Paraconsistent logic capable to extract in a gradual way the effects of the contradiction in originated signals of information of uncertain knowledge database. The Algorithm Paraconsistent Extractor of Contradiction effects -

Cite this paper

nullJ. Filho, G. Lambert-Torres, L. Ferrara, M. Mário, M. Santos, A. Onuki, J. Camargo and A. Rocco, "Paraconsistent Algorithm Extractor of Contradiction Effects -*Paraextrctr*_{ctr}," *Journal of Software Engineering and Applications*, Vol. 4 No. 10, 2011, pp. 579-584. doi: 10.4236/jsea.2011.410067.

nullJ. Filho, G. Lambert-Torres, L. Ferrara, M. Mário, M. Santos, A. Onuki, J. Camargo and A. Rocco, "Paraconsistent Algorithm Extractor of Contradiction Effects -

References

[1] International Council on Large Electric Systems, “Practical Use of Expert Systems in Planning and Operation of Power Systems,” TF 38.06.03, électra, No. 146, February 1993, pp. 30-67.

[2] J. I. Da Silva Filho, A. Rocco, M. C. Mario and L. F. P. Ferrara, “Annotated Paraconsistent Logic Applied to an Expert System Dedicated for Supporting in an Electric Power Transmission Systems Re-Establishment,” IEEE PES-PSC 2006 Power System Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, 29 October-1 November 2006, pp. 2212-2220.

[3] J. I. Da Silva Fiho, G. Lambert-Torres and J. M. Abe, “Uncertainty Treatment Using Paraconsistent Logic: Introducing Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Networks,” IOS Press, Amsterdam, 2010, p. 328.

[4] J. M. Abe and J. I. Da Silva Filho,, “Inconsistency and Electronic Circuits,” In: E. Alpaydin, Ed., Proceedings of EIS’98 International ICSC Symposium on Engineering of Intelligent Systems, Vol. 3, Artificial Intelligence, ICSC Academic Press, Rochester, 1998, pp. 191-197.

[5] H. A. Blair and V. S. Subrahmanian, “Paraconsistent Logic Programming,” 7th Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science, Pune, 17-19 December 1987.

[6] N. C. A. Da Costa, V. S. Subrahmanian and C. Vago, “The Paraconsistent Logic PJ,” Mathematical Logic Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 9-12, 1991, pp. 139-148. doi:10.1002/malq.19910370903

[7] S. Ja?kowski, “Propositional Calculus for Contradictory Deductive Systems,” Studia Logica, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1969, pp. 143-157. doi:10.1007/BF02134311

[8] N. C. A. Da Costa and D. Marconi, “An Overview of Para- consistent Logic in the 80’s,” The Journal of Non-Classical Logic, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1989, pp. 5-32.

[9] N. C. A. Da Costa, “On the Theory of Inconsistent Formal Systems,” Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1974, pp. 497-510. doi:10.1305/ndjfl/1093891487

[10] N. C. A. Da Costa, J. M. Abe and V. S. Subrahmanian, “Remarks on Annotated Logic,” Zeitschrift für Mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik, Vol. 37, 1991, pp. 561-570.

[11] V. S. Subrahmanian, “On the Semantics of Quantitative Logic Programs,” Proceedings of the 4th IEEE Symposium on Logic Programming, San Francisco, 31 August-4 September 1987, pp. 173-182.

[12] J. M. Abe and J. I. Da Silva Filho, “Simulating Inconsistencies in a Paraconsistent Logic Controller,” International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems, Vol. 12, 2002, pp. 315-323.

[13] J. I. Da Silva Filho, A. Rocco, M. C. Mario and L. F. P. Ferrara, “PES-Paraconsistent Expert System: A Computational Program for Support in Re-Establishment of The Electric Transmission Systems,” Proceedings of LAPTEC2007: VI Congress of Logic Applied to Technology, Santos, 21-23 November 2007, p. 217.

[14] J. I. Da Silva Filho, A. Rocco, A. S. Onuki, L. F. P. Ferrara and J. M. Camargo, “Electric Power Systems Contingencies Analysis by Paraconsistent Logic Application,” Proceedings of ISAP2007: 14th International Conference on Intelligent System Applications to Power Systems, Kaohsiung, November 2007, pp. 112-117.

[15] J. I. Da Silva Filho and A. Rocco, “Power Systems Outage Possibilities Analysis by Paraconsistent Logic,” Power and Energy Society General Meeting: Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, Pittsburgh, 20-24 July 2008, pp. 1-6.

[16] J. A. Pereira, “State Estimation Approach for Distribution Networks Considering Uncertainties and Switching,” PhD Thesis, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto, 2001, p. 216.

[1] International Council on Large Electric Systems, “Practical Use of Expert Systems in Planning and Operation of Power Systems,” TF 38.06.03, électra, No. 146, February 1993, pp. 30-67.

[2] J. I. Da Silva Filho, A. Rocco, M. C. Mario and L. F. P. Ferrara, “Annotated Paraconsistent Logic Applied to an Expert System Dedicated for Supporting in an Electric Power Transmission Systems Re-Establishment,” IEEE PES-PSC 2006 Power System Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, 29 October-1 November 2006, pp. 2212-2220.

[3] J. I. Da Silva Fiho, G. Lambert-Torres and J. M. Abe, “Uncertainty Treatment Using Paraconsistent Logic: Introducing Paraconsistent Artificial Neural Networks,” IOS Press, Amsterdam, 2010, p. 328.

[4] J. M. Abe and J. I. Da Silva Filho,, “Inconsistency and Electronic Circuits,” In: E. Alpaydin, Ed., Proceedings of EIS’98 International ICSC Symposium on Engineering of Intelligent Systems, Vol. 3, Artificial Intelligence, ICSC Academic Press, Rochester, 1998, pp. 191-197.

[5] H. A. Blair and V. S. Subrahmanian, “Paraconsistent Logic Programming,” 7th Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science, Pune, 17-19 December 1987.

[6] N. C. A. Da Costa, V. S. Subrahmanian and C. Vago, “The Paraconsistent Logic PJ,” Mathematical Logic Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 9-12, 1991, pp. 139-148. doi:10.1002/malq.19910370903

[7] S. Ja?kowski, “Propositional Calculus for Contradictory Deductive Systems,” Studia Logica, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1969, pp. 143-157. doi:10.1007/BF02134311

[8] N. C. A. Da Costa and D. Marconi, “An Overview of Para- consistent Logic in the 80’s,” The Journal of Non-Classical Logic, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1989, pp. 5-32.

[9] N. C. A. Da Costa, “On the Theory of Inconsistent Formal Systems,” Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1974, pp. 497-510. doi:10.1305/ndjfl/1093891487

[10] N. C. A. Da Costa, J. M. Abe and V. S. Subrahmanian, “Remarks on Annotated Logic,” Zeitschrift für Mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik, Vol. 37, 1991, pp. 561-570.

[11] V. S. Subrahmanian, “On the Semantics of Quantitative Logic Programs,” Proceedings of the 4th IEEE Symposium on Logic Programming, San Francisco, 31 August-4 September 1987, pp. 173-182.

[12] J. M. Abe and J. I. Da Silva Filho, “Simulating Inconsistencies in a Paraconsistent Logic Controller,” International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems, Vol. 12, 2002, pp. 315-323.

[13] J. I. Da Silva Filho, A. Rocco, M. C. Mario and L. F. P. Ferrara, “PES-Paraconsistent Expert System: A Computational Program for Support in Re-Establishment of The Electric Transmission Systems,” Proceedings of LAPTEC2007: VI Congress of Logic Applied to Technology, Santos, 21-23 November 2007, p. 217.

[14] J. I. Da Silva Filho, A. Rocco, A. S. Onuki, L. F. P. Ferrara and J. M. Camargo, “Electric Power Systems Contingencies Analysis by Paraconsistent Logic Application,” Proceedings of ISAP2007: 14th International Conference on Intelligent System Applications to Power Systems, Kaohsiung, November 2007, pp. 112-117.

[15] J. I. Da Silva Filho and A. Rocco, “Power Systems Outage Possibilities Analysis by Paraconsistent Logic,” Power and Energy Society General Meeting: Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, Pittsburgh, 20-24 July 2008, pp. 1-6.

[16] J. A. Pereira, “State Estimation Approach for Distribution Networks Considering Uncertainties and Switching,” PhD Thesis, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto, 2001, p. 216.