Back
 JWARP  Vol.9 No.8 , July 2017
Bacterial Analysis of Selected Drinking Water Sources in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda
Abstract: Surveillance of water quality to ensure microbiological safety is a vital public health function to prevent water borne diseases. Bacterial total coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) examination provide indication of the hygienic condition of drinking water and are major tools in the assessment of the health risk borne by pathogen in water. Unfortunately, there is insufficient information on the total coliform and E. coli amounts in the common drinking water sources in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda despite the eminent anthropogenic sources of contamination. Hence the study established the sanitary risk and quantified the total coliform and E. coli load in selected drinking water sources in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda. A total of 70 water samples were collected from selected boreholes, springs, wells and rainwater in Nyamitanga, Kamukuzi and Kakoba divisions of Mbarara municipality. The water samples were analysed for total coliform and E. coli abundance using the American Public Health Association (APHA) standard method. The total coliform and Escherichia coli counts were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard guidelines. The findings indicate that all the studied groundwater sources (boreholes, springs and wells) in Mbarara Municipality were not compliant to either both or one of the WHO total coliform (<10 CFU/100 ml) and E. coli (0 CFU/100 ml) criteria for drinking water hence they are unsuitable for drinking without treatment e.g. boiling etc. Only rainwater collected from Mbarara University of Science and Technology met the WHO total coliform and E. coli criteria for drinking water thus is suitable for drinking without any treatment. There is a strong linkage between bacterial (total coliforms and E. coli) water quality and water source sanitation, as well as the proximity of latrines, animal farms and landfills around the water sources. Mbarara municipal council should therefore ensure effective and regular operation and maintenance of the drinking water sources through the adoption and promotion of appropriate water safety plans.
Cite this paper: Lukubye, B. and Andama, M. (2017) Bacterial Analysis of Selected Drinking Water Sources in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 9, 999-1013. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.98066.
References

[1]   Rather, M.A., Sharma, H.K., Kandoi, M. and Rao, R.J. (2013) Quality Assessment of Some Local Packaged Water Brands in Gwalior City (M.P), India. International Journal of Environmental Biology, 3, 180-185.

[2]   John, R. (1993) Running out of Water. People & the Planet, 2, 2-3.

[3]   Nafi’u, A. and Anandapandian, K.T.K. (2016) The Occurrence of Waterborne Diseases in Drinking Water in Nakaloke Sub-County, Mbale District, Uganda. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 5, 1416-1421.

[4]   Dick, S.M., Handzel, T. and Venczel, L. (2003) Chlorination and Safe Storage of Household Drinking Water in Developing Countries to Reduce Waterborne Disease. Journal of Water Science and Technology, 47, 221-228.

[5]   Mohammed, S., Demena, T.G.M., Workie, A. and Tadesse, E. (2003) Definition of Waterborne Diseases. Waterborne Diseases for the Ethiopian Health Centre Team. Ethiopian Public Health Initiative, Haramaya University, 13.

[6]   Nygard, K. (2008) Water and Infection Epidemiological Studies of Epidemic and Endemic Waterborne Diseases. Masters Dissertation, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 11-20.

[7]   Bwire, G., Malimbo, M., Maskery, B., Kim, Y.E., Mogasale, V. and Levin, A. (2013) The Burden of Cholera in Uganda. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7, e2545.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0002545

[8]   Water and Sanitation Program (2012) Uganda Economic Impacts of Poor Sanitation in Africa.
https://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/WSP-ESI-Uganda.pdf

[9]   World Health Organization and United Nation International Children Emergency Funds (2012) Joint Monitoring Programme. World Health Organisation Press, 1.

[10]   World Health Organization and United Nations Childrens Fund (2014) Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation 2014 Update. World Health Organisation.

[11]   Mbarara District Planning Unit (2009) Higher Local Government Statistical Abstract Mbarara District. Mbarara, Uganda.

[12]   UN-Water World Water Assessment Programme (2006) National Water Development Report. Prepared for 2nd UN-World Water Development Report Water a Shared Responsibility. Uganda.

[13]   Mbarara Municipality (2009) Mbarara Municipality Council Development Plan 2009-2012. Mbarara Municipality Press, Mbarara.

[14]   WHO (1997) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, Vol. 3: Surveillance and Control of Community Water Supplies. 2nd Edition, World Health Organisation, Geneva.

[15]   Nabucha, A. and Rugumayo, A.I. (2015) Water Quality Assessment in a Rural Setting: A Case Study of Budaka District. UNESCO International Scientific Symposium, Kyoto-Otsu, 15-18 July 2015.
http://www.unescokyotosympo2015.org/abstracts/Rugumayo%20-%20
Water%20Quality%20Assessment%20in%20a%20Rural%20Setting.pdf


[16]   Uganda Bureau of Statistics (2014) Statistical Abstract. Kampala. Republic of Uganda, Kampala.

[17]   Lukubye, B. and Andama, M. (2017) Physico-Chemical Quality of Selected Drinking Water Sources in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 9, 707-722.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2017.97047

[18]   Haruna, R., Ejobi, F. and Kabagambe, E.K. (2005) The Quality of Water from Protected Springs in Katwe and Kisenyi Parishes, Kampala City, Uganda. African Health Sciences, 5, 14-20.

[19]   Howard, A.G. (2002) Water Supply Surveillance: A Reference Manual. WEDC, Loughborough University.

[20]   American Public Health Association (2012) Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water. 22nd Edition, American Public Health Association Press, Washington DC.

[21]   World Health Organisation (2004) World Health Organisation Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. World Health Organisation Press, Geneva.

[22]   Water Watch Australia Steering Committee (2002) Water Watch Australia National Technical Manual. Environment Australia.

[23]   Karikari, A. and Ondi, D. (2004) An Assessment of Water Quality of Angaw River in South-Eastern Coastal Plains of Ghana. CSIR-Water Research Institute, 95, 23-36.

[24]   Parihar, S.S., Kumar, A., Kumar, A., Gupta, R.N., Pathak, M., Shrivastav, A. and Pandey, A.C. (2012) Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Analysis of Underground Water in and around Gwalior City, MP, India. Research Journal of Recent Science, 1, 62-65.

[25]   Mohan, D., Gaur, A. and Chodhary, D. (2007) Study of Limnology and Microbiology of NayaTalab, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Proceedings of National Symposium on Limnology, 64-68.

[26]   World Health Organisation (1993) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality-Recommendations. 2nd Edition, Vol. 1, World Health Organisation, Geneva.

[27]   Anon (2002) Assessment Studies of Water and Waste Water Systems Associated Water Management Practices at Selected First Nation Communities.

[28]   Yasin, M., Ketema, T. and Bacha, K. (2015) Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water of Different Sources, Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. BMC Research Notes, 8, 541.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1376-5

[29]   Nsubuga, F.B., Kansiime, F. and Okot, O.J. (2004) Pollution of Protected Springs in relation to High and Low Density Settlements in Kampala, Uganda. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 29, 1153-1159.

[30]   Cheesbrough, M. (2006) District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, New York.
https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511543470

[31]   Lloyd, B. and Bartman, J. (1991) Surveillance Solutions to Microbiological Problems in Water Quality Control in Developing Countries. Water, Science and Technology, 24, 61-75.

[32]   Guy, H., Nalubega, M., Barrett, M., Pedley, S., Kulabako, R., Haruna, R., Johal, K. and Taylor, I. (2002) Impact of On-Site Sanitation on Groundwater Supplies in Kampala and Iganga, Uganda in ARGOSS Assessing Risk to Ground Water from On-Site Sanitation: Scientific Review and Case Studies. British Geological Survey Commissioned Report CR/02/079N, British Geological 1-16.

[33]   Bello, O.O., Osho, A., Bankole, S.A. and Bello, T.K. (2013) Bacteriological and Physicochemical Analyses of Borehole and Well Water Sources in Ijebu-Ode, Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 8, 18-25.

[34]   Palamuleni, L. and Akoth, M. (2015) Physico-Chemical and Microbial Analysis of Selected Borehole Water in Mahikeng, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12, 8619-8630.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120808619

[35]   Bloodless, D., Zvikomborero, H., David, L. and Edward, G. (2006) Assessment of the Impacts of Pit Latrines on Groundwater Quality in Rural Areas: A Case Study from Marondera District, Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 31, 779-788.

[36]   Tiwari, S. (2015) Water Quality Parameters—A Review. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention Research & Development, 1, 319-324.

[37]   Taylor, R.G. and Howard, A.G. (1995) Groundwater Quality in Rural Uganda: Hydrochemical Considerations for the Development of Aquifers within the Basement Complex of Africa. In: Mccall, J.H., Ed., Groundwater Quality.

[38]   Barrett, M.H., Nalubega, M., Howard, A.G., Taylor, R.G. and Pedley, S. (1999) The Impact of On-Site Sanitation on Urban Groundwater Quality in Uganda. In: Fendecova and Fendek, Eds., Hydrogeology and Land Use Management.

[39]   Howard, G., Pedley, S., Barett, M., Nalubega, M. and Johal, K. (2003) Risk Factors Contributing to Microbiological Contamination of Shallow Groundwater in Kampala, Uganda. Water Research, 37, 3421-3429.

[40]   Curriero, F., Patz, J., Rose, J.B. and Lele, S. (2001) The Association between Extreme Precipitation and Waterborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States, 1948-1994. American Journal of Public Health, 12-29.

[41]   Kimani-Murage, E.W. and Ngindu, A.M. (2007) Quality of Water the Slum Dwellers Use: The Case of a Kenyan Slum. Journal of Urban Health, 84, 829-838.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-007-9199-x

[42]   Kulabako, N.R., Nalubega, M. and Thunvik, R. (2007) Study of the Impact of Land use and Hydrogeological Settings on the Shallow Groundwater Quality in a Peri-Urban area of Kampala, Uganda. Science of the Total Environment, 381, 180-199.

[43]   Musinguzi, D. (2003) The Status of Water Sources of Mbarara Municipality. Bachelor of Science with Education, Dissertaion, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, 19-20.

[44]   Van Elsas, J.D., Semenov, A.V., Costa, R. and Trevors, J.T. (2011) Survival of Escherichia coli in the Environment: Fundamental and Public Health Aspects. ISME Journal, 5, 173-183.
https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2010.80

[45]   Karak, T. and Bhattacharyya, P. (2011) Human Urine as a Source of Alternative Natural Fertilizer in Agriculture: A Flight of Fancy or an Achievable Reality. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 55, 400-408.

[46]   Buchanan, R.L. and Edelson, S.G. (1999) Effect of pH-Dependent, Stationary Phase Acid Resistance on the Thermal Tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Food Microbiology, 16, 447-458.
https://doi.org/10.1006/fmic.1998.0260

[47]   Levinson, W. (2008) Medical Microbiology and Immunology. 10th Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies, Incorporation, New York.

[48]   Audrey, C.K., Kristin, D., Breidt, F. and Hassan, H. (2008) Effects of pH, Dissolved Oxygen, and Ionic Strength on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Organic Acid Solutions. Journal of Food Protection, 71, 2404-2409.

 
 
Top