ABSTRACT We investigated the conformity of young children without the use of confederates by utilizing the fMORI-Asch paradigm. The Asch-equivalent tasks were presented by means of a presentation trick so that one participant observed different stimuli than the other three, creating a minority-majority confrontation without using confederates. Ninety-six Japanese first graders (6-7 years old; 48 boys and 48 girls) participated in same-sex groups of four. The response order was randomly assigned and the third responders observed the standard lines differently from the other three children. The results showed that the minority children who had observed different stimuli tended to make more errors than the other three children. No gender differences were observed.
Cite this paper
nullHanayama, A. & Mori, K. (2011). Conformity of Six-Year-Old Children in the Asch Experiment without Using Confederates. Psychology, 2, 661-664. doi: 10.4236/psych.2011.27100.
 Asch, S. E. (1955). Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American, 193, 33-35. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1155-31
Asch, S. E. (1956). Studies of independence and conformity: I. A mi- nority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Mono- graph: General and Applied, 70, 395-407.
Asch, S. E. (1958). Effects of group pressure upon modification and distortion of judgments. In E. E. Maccoby, T. M. Newcomb, & E. L. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in social psychology (3rd ed., pp. 174-183). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Bond, R., & Smith, P. B. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta- analysis of studies using Asch’s (1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 111-137.
Ceci, S. J., & Bruck, M. (1993). Suggestibility of the child witness: A historical review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 403-439.
Costanzo, P. R. (1970). Conformity development as a function of self-blame. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 366- 374. doi:10.1037/h0028983
Costanzo, P. R., & Shaw, M. (1966). Conformity as a function of age level. Child Development, 37, 967-975. doi:10.2307/1126618
Crutchfield, R. S. (1955). Conformity and character. American Psy- chologist, 10, 191-198. doi:10.1037/h0040237
Mori, K. (2007). Projecting two words with one machine: A method for presenting two different visual stimuli using just one projector with- out viewer’ noticing the duality Behavior Research Methods, 39, 811-815. doi:10.3758/BF03192973
Mori, K., & Arai, M. (2010). No need to fake it: Reproduction of the Asch experiment without confederates. International Journal of Psychology, 45, 390-397. doi:10.1080/00207591003774485
Walker, M. B., & Andrade, M. G. (1996). Conformity in the Asch task as a function of age. The Journal of Social Psychology, 136, 367- 372. doi:10.1080/00224545.1996.9714014