Back
 AS  Vol.8 No.7 , July 2017
Nutritional Quality of Olives and Olive oil Produced in the Serra Da Mantiqueira from Brazil
Abstract: The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest fruits grown by man. Its fruit can be processed into olive oil or treated properly and serve directly for the in natura consumption in the form of olives. Extracted from the olive, the olive oil is highly valued in the market, for its nutritional benefits and also for its unique and delicate flavor. Brazil is the second largest importer of olive oil in the world, but technology is already available and the expansion of the crop has been taking place in the south-southeast regions, where the climate is favorable, in order to serve this market. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical qualities of the olives and characterize, sensorially and chemically, olive oils from different olive cultivars planted in the Region of Serra da Mantiqueira. The olives and olive oils produced from the cultivars Arbequina, Arbosana, Grapolo 541, Koroneiki and Maria da Fé were evaluated at the EPAMIG Experimental Field of Maria da Fé, Minas Gerais, and Brazil. In the first experiment the olives harvested in February of 2015 were analyzed in terms of weight, volume, transverse and longitudinal diameter of the fruit and the lump and the relation of the olive/lump and the chemical (protein, lipid, moisture and ashes). In the second experiment the olives were processed by the grinding, beating and centrifugation method to obtain the oils. The olive oils were analyzed for acidity, peroxide index and absorbance in the ultraviolet region at 274 nm, 270 nm, 266 nm and 232 nm. After this characterization the olive oils produced in the Serra da Mantiqueira were then submitted to sensorial analysis. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% of probability. The interpretation of the data from the sensorial analysis was done using the software sensomaker. Differences were observed between olives and olive oils produced by different cultivars in the Serra da Mantiqueira. The cultivar Grappolo 541 produces larger fruits, indicated for the preparation of olives and in natura consumption. Due to the small size of the fruit, the cultivar Maria da Fé is more suitable for olive oil production. The oils of all cultivars are within the parameters established by the Brazilian legislation in force, being classified as Extra Virgin Olive Oil. The oils of all cultivars were well accepted by consumers, especially the cultivars Maria da Fé and Grappolo 541.
Keywords: Diet, Health, Diet, Cooking
Cite this paper: Albérico Alvarenga, Â. , Ludimila da Cruz, J. , de Oliveira, A. , de Oliveira da Silva, L. , Gonçalves, E. and Norberto, P. (2017) Nutritional Quality of Olives and Olive oil Produced in the Serra Da Mantiqueira from Brazil. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 518-526. doi: 10.4236/as.2017.87039.
References

[1]   Silva, L.F.O. (2011) Agroindustrial Characterization of Olive Cultivars with Economic Potential for the South of Minas Gerais. Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras.

[2]   Oliveira, A.F., Antunes, L.E.C. and Schuch, M.W. (2006) Morphological Characterization of Olive Cultivars in Collection and Considerations about Their Cultivation in Brazil. Informe Agropecuário, 27, 55-62.

[3]   Forbes Brasil (2017) Brazil is the World’s Leading Importer of Olive Oil.
http://www.forbes.com.br/colunas/2015/06/brasil-e-vice-mundial-na-importacao-de-azeite-de-oliva/

[4]   Barcelos, M.F.P., Angelis-Pereira, M.C. and Oliveira, A.F. (2006) Nutritional Aspects of Olive Oil and Its Influence on Human Diet. Informe Agropecuário, 27, 98-104.

[5]   Aparicio, R. and Harwood, J. (2013) Handbook of Olive Oil: Analysis and Properties. Springer, New York, 769.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7777-8

[6]   Bester, E., et al. (2007) Chemical Changes in Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Slovenian Istra after Thermal Treatment. Food Chemistry, 108, 446-454.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.10.061

[7]   Pimentel, I.C., Magnoni, C.D. and Costa, R.P. (2007) Use of Olive Oil in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases. Departments of SOCESP, Sao Paulo.

[8]   Dutra, L.F., et al. (2004) Olive (Olea europaea L.) in Vitro Multiplication. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 28, 220-223.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-70542004000100030

[9]   ANVISA—National Sanitary Surveillance Agency (2016) Technical Regulation for Identification and Quality of Vegetable Oils and Fats.
http://www4.anvisa.gov.br/base/visadoc/CP/CP%5B8994-1-0%5D.pdf

[10]   Wikipedia (2016) Maria da Fé.
http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_da_F%C3%A9

[11]   Ferreira, D.F. (2008) Sisvar: A Program for Analysis and Teaching of Statistics. Revista Symposium, 6, 36-41.

[12]   ANVISA (2005) Technical Regulation for Vegetable Oils, Vegetable Fats and Vegetable Cream. Official Gazette [da] Federative Republic of Brazil, Brasília.

[13]   Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2005) Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, 1410.

[14]   Adolfo Lutz Institute—IAL (2005) Analytical Standards of the Adolfo Lutz Institute: Chemical and Physical Methods for Food Analysis. Adolfo Lutz Institute, Sao Paulo, 1, 533.

[15]   Pinheiro, A.C.M., Nunes, C.A. and Vietoris, V. (2013) SensoMaker: A Tool for Sensorial Characterization of Food Products. Ciência e Agrotecnologia (UFLA), 37, 199-201.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-70542013000300001

[16]   Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply—MAP (2012)
http://sistemasweb.agricultura.gov.br/sislegis/action/detalhaAto.do?method=visualizarAtoPortalMapa&chave=629707739

[17]   Uceda, M., Hermoso, M. and Aguilera, M.P. (2008) The Quality of Olive Oil. In: Barranco, D., Fernández-Escobar, R. and Rallo, L., Eds., The Cultivation of the Olive Tree, Mundi-Prensa-Junta de Andalucía, Madrid, 699-727.

 
 
Top