Back
 MSA  Vol.8 No.7 , July 2017
Properties of Geopolymers Made from Fired Clay Bricks Wastes and Rice Husk Ash (RHA)-Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Activator
Abstract: High cost has been pointed among factors that limit the promotion of geopolymers. To contribute to the reduction of the use of costly industrial sodium silicate in activators for geopolymers, a gel obtained with RHA and concentrated sodium hydroxide was used in the present study to develop an alkaline activator with 8 M NaOH and to produce geopolymers with crushed fired clay bricks wastes (FCBW). Characteristics of the gel were compared to that of commercial sodium silicate which was also mixed with 8 M NaOH in the ratio 1:1 to produce geopolymers. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were done on raw materials. Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was done on the gel, commercial sodium silicate and products. Biaxial four point flexural strength, bulk density, water absorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests were also done on products. Results showed that RHA-NaOH alkaline activator has good potential in consolidating FCBW powder through geopolymerization process which gave products that had characteristics not far from that when the commercial sodium silicate was used. The gel obtained by mixing RHA and NaOH can contribute to the reduction of the use of costly commercial sodium silicate in the production process of geopolymers. However, appropriate filtration process is needed for the RHA-NaOH gel to reduce its impurities as undissolved entities, which will consequently contribute to improve the flexural strength, the density and the microstructure of its products which were low compared to when commercial sodium silicate was used.
Cite this paper: Beleuk à Moungam, L. , Mohamed, H. , Kamseu, E. , Billong, N. and Melo, U. (2017) Properties of Geopolymers Made from Fired Clay Bricks Wastes and Rice Husk Ash (RHA)-Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Activator. Materials Sciences and Applications, 8, 537-552. doi: 10.4236/msa.2017.87037.
References

[1]   Favier, A. (2013) Mécanisme de prise et rhéologie de liants géopolymères modèles. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Paris-Est, Paris.

[2]   Puertas, F., García-Díaz, I., Barba, A., Gazulla, M.F., Palacios, M. Gómez, M.P. and Martínez-Ramírez, S. (2008) Ceramic Wastes as Alternative Raw Materials for Portland Cement Clinker Production. Cement and Concrete Composites, 30, 798- 805.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2008.06.003

[3]   Habert, G., D’Espinose de Lacaillerie, J.B. and Roussel, N. (2011) An Environmental Evaluation of Geopolymer Based Concrete Production: Reviewing Current Research Trends. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19, 1229-1238.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2011.03.012

[4]   Rodriguez, E.D., Bernal, S.A., Provis, J.L., Jordi, P., Monzo, J.M. and Borrachero, M.V. (2013) Effect of Nanosilica-Based Activators on the Performance of an Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Binder. Cement and Concrete Composites, 35, 1-11.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.08.025

[5]   Davidovits, J. (1991) Geopolymers. Journal of Thermal Analysis, 37, 1633-1656.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01912193

[6]   Davidovits, J. (2008) Geopolymer Chemistry and Applications. Geopolymer Institute, Saint-Quentin.

[7]   Elimbi, A., Tchakoute, H.K. and Njopwouo, D. (2011) Effects of Calcination Temperature of Kaolinite Clays on the Properties of Geopolymer Cements. Construction and Building Materials, 25, 2805-2812.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.12.055

[8]   Al Bakri, M.M., Mohammed, H., Kamarudin, H., KhairulNiza, I. and Zarina, Y. (2011) Review on Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete without Portland Cement. Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, 3, 1-4.

[9]   Kamseu, E., Leonelli, C., Perera, D.S., Melo, U.C. and Lemougna, P.N. (2009) Investigation of Volcanic Ash Based Geopolymers as Potential Building Materials. International Ceramics, 58, 136-140.

[10]   ReighCerdá, L., Tashima, M.M., Borrachero, M.V., Monzó, J., Cheeseman, C.R. and Payá, J. (2013) Properties and Microstructure of Alkali-Activated Red Clay Brick Waste. Construction and Building Materials, 43, 98-106.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.01.031

[11]   Provis, J.L. (2009) Activating Solution Chemistry for Geopolymers, Geopolymers: Structures, Processing, Properties and Industrial Applications. Woodhead Publishing, Abingdon, 50-71.

[12]   Kalapathy, U., Proctor, A. and Shultz, J. (2002) An Improved Method for Production of Silica from Rice Hull Ash. Bioresource Technology, 85, 285-289.

[13]   Foletto, E.L., Gratieri, E., De Oliveira, L.H. and Jahn, S.L. (2006) Conversion of Rice Hull Ash into Soluble Sodium Silicate. Materials Research, 9, 335-338.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-14392006000300014

[14]   Zivica, V. (2004) High Effective Silica Fume Alkali Activator. Bulletin of Materials Science, 27, 179-182.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02708502

[15]   Affandi, S., Setyawan, H., Winardi, S., Purwanto, A. and Balgis, R. (2009) A Facile Method for Production of High-Purity Silica Xerogels from Bagasse Ash. Advanced Powder Technology, 20, 468-472.

[16]   De Sousa, A., Visconte, L., Mansur, C. and Furtado, C. (2009) Silica Sol Obtained from Rice Husk Ash. Chemistry & Chemical Technology, 3, 321-326.

[17]   Xiong, L., Sekiya, E.H., Sujaridworakun, P., Wada, S. and Saito, K. (2009) Burning Temperature Dependence of Rice Husk Ashes in Structure and Property. Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals, 19, 95-99.

[18]   Sore, S.O., Messan, A., Prud’homme, E., Escadeillas, G. and Tsobnang, F. (2016) Synthesis and Characterization of Geopolymer Binders Based on Local Materials from Burkina Faso—Metakaolin and Rice Husk Ash. Construction and Building Materials, 124, 301-311.

[19]   Behnood, A., Modiri Gharehveran, M., GozaliAsl, F. and Ameri, M. (2015) Effects of Copper Slag and Recycled Concrete Aggregate on the Properties of CIR Mixes with Bitumen Emulsion, Rice Husk Ash, Portland Cement and Fly Ash. Construction and Building Materials, 96, 172-180.

[20]   Yang, W., Xue, Y., Wu, S., Xiao, Y. and Zhou, M. (2016) Performance Investigation and Environmental Application of Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag – Rice Husk Ash Based Composite Cementitious Materials. Construction and Building Materials, 123, 493-500.

[21]   Yoshizawa, S., Tanaka, M. and Shekdar, A.V. (2004) Global Trends in Waste Generation. In: Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology, TMS Mineral, Metals and Materials Publishers, 1541-1552.

[22]   Jihwan, K., Dong, J.K. and Goangseup, Z. (2013) Improvement of the Biaxial Flexure Test Method for Concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 37, 154-160.

[23]   ASTMC 830-00 (2006) Standard Test Methods for Apparent Porosity, Liquid Absorption, Apparent Specific Gravity and Bulk Density of Refractory Shapes by Vacuum Pressure. ASTM International.

[24]   Kamath, S.R. and Proctor, A. (1998) Silica Gel from Rice Hull Ash: Preparation and Characterization. Cereal Chemistry, 75, 484-487.
https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1998.75.4.484

[25]   Sabir, B.B., Wild, S. and Bail, J. (2001) Metakaolin and Calcined Clays as Pozzolans for Concretes: A Review. Cement and Concrete Composites, 23, 441-454.

[26]   Halasz, I., Agarwal, M., Li, R. and Miller, N. (2007) Vibrational Spectra and Dissociation of Aqueous Na2SiO3 Solutions. Catalysis Letters, 117, 34-42.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10562-007-9141-6

[27]   Gaggiano, R., De Graeve, I., Mol, J.M.C., Verbeken, K, Kestens, L.A.I. and Terryn, H. (2013) An Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Sodium Silicate Adsorption on Porous Anodic Alumina. Surface Interface Analysis, 45, 1098-1104.
https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.5230

[28]   Tognonvi, T.M., Soro, J., Gelet, J.L. and Rossignol, S. (2012) Physico-Chemistry of Silica/Na Silicate Interactions during Consolidation. Part 2: Effect of pH. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 358, 492-501.

[29]   White, C.E., Provis, J.L., Llobet, A.L., Proffen, T. and van Deventer, J.S.J. (2011) Evolution of Local Structure in Geopolymer Gels: An in Situ Neutron Pair Distribution Function Analysis. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 94, 3353-3532. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-2916.2011.04515.x

[30]   Tchakoute, H.K. (2013) Elaboration et caractérisation des ciments géopolymères à base de scories volcaniques. Thèse de doctorat.

[31]   Panias, D., Giannopoulou, I. and Perraki, T. (2007) Effect of Synthesis Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymers. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physico-Chemical Engineering Aspects, 301, 246-254.

[32]   Fernandez, J.A. and Palomo, A. (2005) Composition and Microstructure of Alkali Activated Fly Ash Binder: Effect of the Activator. Cement Concrete Research, 35, 1984-1992.

[33]   Bernal, S.A., Rodriguez, E.D., Mejia de Gutiérrez, R., Provis, J.L. and Delvasto, S. (2012) Activation of Metakaolin/Slag Blends Using Alkaline Solutions Based on Chemically Modified Silica Fume and Rice Husk Ash. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 3, 99-108.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-011-9093-3

[34]   Emdadi, Z., Asim, N., Yarmo, M.A., Shamsudin, R. and Alghoul, M.A. (2015) The Effect of Mix Composition on the Water Absorption, Density and Compressive Strength of Rice Husk Based Geopolymers. 5th International Conference on Environment Science and Engineering, Vol. 83, 1-5.

 
 
Top