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 CWEEE  Vol.6 No.3 , July 2017
Spatial Variability of Ground Water Quality Using HCA, PCA and MANOVA at Lawspet, Puducherry in India
Abstract: In ground water quality studies multivariate statistical techniques like Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Factor Analysis (FA) and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) were employed to evaluate the principal factors and mechanisms governing the spatial variations and to assess source apportionment at Lawspet area in Puducherry, India. PCA/FA has made the first known factor which showed the anthropogenic impact on ground water quality and this dominant factor explained 82.79% of the total variance. The other four factors identified geogenic and hardness components. The distribution of first factor scores portray high loading for EC, TDS, Na+ and Cl− (anthropogenic) in south east and south west parts of the study area, whereas other factor scores depict high loading for HCO3−, Mg2+, Ca2+ and TH (hardness and geogenic) in the north west and south west parts of the study area. K+ and SO42− (geogenic) are dominant in south eastern direction. Further MANOVA showed that there are significant differences between ground water quality parameters. The spatial distribution maps of water quality parameters have rendered a powerful and practical visual tool for defining, interpreting, and distinguishing the anthropogenic, hardness and geogenic factors in the study area. Further the study indicated that multivariate statistical methods have successfully assessed the ground water qualitatively and spatially with a more effective step towards ground water quality management.
Cite this paper: Nathan, N. , Saravanane, R. and Sundararajan, T. (2017) Spatial Variability of Ground Water Quality Using HCA, PCA and MANOVA at Lawspet, Puducherry in India. Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 6, 243-268. doi: 10.4236/cweee.2017.63017.
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