GEP  Vol.5 No.6 , June 2017
Speciation and Mobility of Phosphate in the Eutrophic Ponds at Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York, USA
The water system at the Prospect Park ponds of Brooklyn, NY has been receiving chronic loads of orthophosphate from the municipal water since the mid ’90s. The ponds are currently eutrophic with degraded water quality and high levels of P in the sediment. In this study, the distribution and speciation of P within the water column was examined. The dominant form of P in the water was found as soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) and the temporal change of SRP indicated significant internal loading from the sediment during late summer in the ponds downstream. Lake sediment was investigated for P fractionation and phosphate bound to Fe-hydroxides was the dominant form of P in the sediment. Both external and internal P pools are important and should be taken into consideration when planning for restoration.
Cite this paper: Liu, Y. , Cheng, Z. , Branco, B. and Marra, J. (2017) Speciation and Mobility of Phosphate in the Eutrophic Ponds at Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York, USA. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 5, 26-36. doi: 10.4236/gep.2017.56004.

[1]   Shan, B., Li, J., Zhang, W., Di, Z. and Jin, X. (2016) Characteristics of Phosphorus Components in the Sediments of Main Rivers into the Bohai Sea. Ecological Engineering, 97, 426-433.

[2]   Conley, D.J., et al. (2009) Controlling Eutrophication: Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Science, 323, 1014-1015.

[3]   Smith, V.H. (2003) Eutrophication of Freshwater and Coastal Marine Ecosystems a Global Problem. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 10, 126-139.

[4]   Carpenter, S.R. (2008) Phosphorus Control Is Critical to Mitigating Eutrophication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 11039-11040.

[5]   Correll, D.L. (1998) The Role of Phosphorus in the Eutrophication of Receiving Wa-ters: A Review. Journal of Environmental Quality, 27, 261-266.

[6]   Schock, M.R. (1996) Corrosion Inhibitor Applications in Drinking Water Treatment: Conforming to the Lead and Copper Rule. CORROSION '96: National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) Conference, Denver, 24-29 March 1996.

[7]   Bloomberg, M.R. and Lawitts, M.S.W. (2005) New York City 2008 Drinking Water Supply and Quality Report.

[8]   Blasio, B. and Sapienza, V. (2010) New York City 2010 Drinking Water Supply and Quality Report.

[9]   Søndergaard, M., Jensen, J.P. and Jeppesen, E. (2003) Role of Sediment and Internal Loading of Phosphorus in Shallow Lakes. Hydrobiologia, 506, 135-145.

[10]   Jeppesen, E., et al. (1991) Recovery Resilience Following a Reduction in External Phosphorus Loading of Shallow, Eutrophic Danish Lakes: Duration, Regulating Factors and Methods for Overcoming Resilience. Memorie dell'Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, 48, 127-148.

[11]   Williams, J.D.H., Jaquet, J.M. and Thomas, R.L. (1976) Forms of Phosphorus in the Surficial Sediments of Lake Erie. Journal of the Fisheries Board of Canada, 33, 413-429.

[12]   Ruban, V., et al. (1999) Selection and Evaluation of Sequential Extraction Procedures for the Determination of Phosphorus Forms in Lake Sediment. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 1, 51-56.

[13]   Ruttenberg, K.C. (1992) Development of a Sequential Extraction Method for Different Forms of Phosphorus in Marine Sediments. Limnology and Oceanography, 37, 1460-1482.

[14]   Psenner, R. and Pucsko, R. (1988) Phosphorus Fractionation: Advantages and Limits of the Method for the Study of Sediment P Origins and Interactions. Archiv für Hydrobiologie. Beihefte. Ergebnisse der Limnologie, 30, 43-60.

[15]   Stumm, W. and Morgan, J.J. (1981) Aquatic Chemistry: An Introduction Emphasizing Chemical Equilibria in Natural Waters. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., New York.

[16]   Golterman, H.L. (1996) Fractionation of Sediment Phosphate with Chelating Compounds: A Simplification, and Comparison with Other Methods. Hydrobiologia, 335, 87-95.

[17]   Golterman, H.L. (1982) Differential Extraction of Sediment Phosphates with Nta Solutions. Hydrobiologia, 91, 683-687.

[18]   Mortimer, C.H. (1941) The Exchange of Dissolved Substances between Mud and Water in Lakes. Journal of Ecology, 29, 280-329.

[19]   Boström, B., Andersen, J.M., Fleischer, S. and Jansson, M. (1988) Exchange of Phosphorus across the Sediment-Water Interface. Hydrobiologia, 170, 229-244.

[20]   Lijklema, L. (1977) Role of Iron in the Exchange of Phosphate between Water and Sedi-ments. In: Golterman, H.L., Ed., Interactions between Sediments and Fresh Water. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Amsterdam, 313-323.

[21]   Koski-Vähälä, J. and Hartikainen, H. (2001) Assessment of the Risk of Phosphorus Loading Due to Re-suspended Sediment. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 960-966.

[22]   Williams, J.D.H., Jaquet, J.M. and Thomas, R.L. (1976) Forms of Phosphorus in the Surficial Sediments of Lake Erie. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 33, 413-429.

[23]   De Vicente, I., Serrano, L., Amores, V., Clavero, V. and Cruz-Pizarro, L. (2003) Sediment Phosphate Fractionation and Interstitial Water Phosphate Concentration in Two Coastal Lagoons (Albuferas De Adra, SE Spain). Hydrobiologia, 492, 95-105.

[24]   Zimmermann, C., Keefe, C. and Bashe, J. (1997) Determination of Orthophosphate in Estuarine and Coastal Waters by Automated Colorimetric Analysis. In: Methods for the Determination of Chemical Substances in Marine and Estuarine Environmental Matrices, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.

[25]   Fitzpatrick, W.P. (1987) Sedimentation Survey of Dawson Lake, Moraine View State Lake, Mclean County, Illinois. Illinois State Water Survey Contract Report, 413, 1-25.

[26]   Van der Does, J., et al. (1992) Lake Restoration with and without Dredging of Phosphorus-Enriched Upper Sediment Layers. Hydrobiologia, 233, 197-210.