OJST  Vol.1 No.3 , September 2011
Cephalometric norms for a sample of Emirates adults
Introduction—European-American norms are still used in the orthodontic treatment of Emirates patients despite the different ethnic backgrounds of the Emirates. The purpose of this study was to formulate cephalometric norms for lateral cephalometric mea-surements of Emirates adults and to study gender differences. Methods—Lateral cephalometric radio-graphs of 176 Emirates adults, 91 males and 85 fe-males, were selected according to the following crite-ria; an age range between 19 to 25 years, esthetically pleasing and harmonious faces with balanced and acceptable profiles and occlusions, normal skeletal and dental relationship, all permanent teeth present, and no history of orthodontic treatment or facial trauma. The mean values and standard deviations of 91 angular and 21 linear cephalometric variables were calculated using the Dolphin version 10.5 soft-ware package. The resulting norms for Emirates male and female groups were compared using a student t-test. Results—Several statistically significant gender differences were noticeable. Skeletally, Emirates males showed significantly greater (p < 0.001) total, anterior, and posterior cranial base lengths as well as longer facial heights, greater SGn-FH (°), ANS Xi PM (°),and FH/MP (°) angles than females. In addition, Emirates males had significantly greater (p < 0.001) Co-A (mm), Co-Gn (mm), and significantly greater (p < 0.05) Pog-N vert (mm) than females. Dentally, Emirates males had significantly greater (p < 0.05) UI-SN (°) and U1-NA (°), U1-NA (mm), and L1-NB (mm) (p < 0.001) than females. For soft tissue measurements there were significant gender differences (p < 0.001) for all angular and linear measurements except for lower lip to E-plane and nose prominence measurements which have no significant gender difference. Emirates males revealed greater measurements than females except for soft tissue con-vexity, Z-angle, and both upper and lower lips pro-trusion which were significantly greater in Emirates females. Conclusions—The use of specific cephalometric standards for Emirates adults, sep-arate for gender, seems to be justified. It is appropri-ate to put these cephalometric norms into daily or-thodontic practice when Emirates adults are being treated.

Cite this paper
nullAbu-Tayyem, H. , Alshamsi, A. , Hafez, S. and ElDin, E. (2011) Cephalometric norms for a sample of Emirates adults. Open Journal of Stomatology, 1, 75-83. doi: 10.4236/ojst.2011.13013.
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