ABSTRACT Introduction—European-American norms are still used in the orthodontic treatment of Emirates patients despite the different ethnic backgrounds of the Emirates. The purpose of this study was to formulate cephalometric norms for lateral cephalometric mea-surements of Emirates adults and to study gender differences. Methods—Lateral cephalometric radio-graphs of 176 Emirates adults, 91 males and 85 fe-males, were selected according to the following crite-ria; an age range between 19 to 25 years, esthetically pleasing and harmonious faces with balanced and acceptable profiles and occlusions, normal skeletal and dental relationship, all permanent teeth present, and no history of orthodontic treatment or facial trauma. The mean values and standard deviations of 91 angular and 21 linear cephalometric variables were calculated using the Dolphin version 10.5 soft-ware package. The resulting norms for Emirates male and female groups were compared using a student t-test. Results—Several statistically significant gender differences were noticeable. Skeletally, Emirates males showed significantly greater (p < 0.001) total, anterior, and posterior cranial base lengths as well as longer facial heights, greater SGn-FH (°), ANS Xi PM (°),and FH/MP (°) angles than females. In addition, Emirates males had significantly greater (p < 0.001) Co-A (mm), Co-Gn (mm), and significantly greater (p < 0.05) Pog-N vert (mm) than females. Dentally, Emirates males had significantly greater (p < 0.05) UI-SN (°) and U1-NA (°), U1-NA (mm), and L1-NB (mm) (p < 0.001) than females. For soft tissue measurements there were significant gender differences (p < 0.001) for all angular and linear measurements except for lower lip to E-plane and nose prominence measurements which have no significant gender difference. Emirates males revealed greater measurements than females except for soft tissue con-vexity, Z-angle, and both upper and lower lips pro-trusion which were significantly greater in Emirates females. Conclusions—The use of specific cephalometric standards for Emirates adults, sep-arate for gender, seems to be justified. It is appropri-ate to put these cephalometric norms into daily or-thodontic practice when Emirates adults are being treated.
Cite this paper
nullAbu-Tayyem, H. , Alshamsi, A. , Hafez, S. and ElDin, E. (2011) Cephalometric norms for a sample of Emirates adults. Open Journal of Stomatology, 1, 75-83. doi: 10.4236/ojst.2011.13013.
 Broadbent, B.H. (1931) A new X-ray technique and its application to orthodontia. Angle Orthodontist, 1, 45-66.
Hofrath, H. (1931) Die bedeutung der roentgenfern der kiefer anomalien. Fortschr Orthodontic, 1, 232-248.
Athanasiou, A. (1997) Orthodontic cephalometry. Mosby- Wolfe, London.
Bishara, S.E., Jacobsen, J.R., Hession, T.J. and Treder, J.E. (1998) Soft tissue profile changes from 5 to 45 years of age. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 114, 698-706.
Bishara, S.E. and Fernandez, A.G. (1985) Cephalometric comparisons of the dentofacial relationships of two ado-lescent populations from Iowa and Northern Mexico. American Journal of Orthodontics, 88, 314-322.
Downs, W.B. (1956) Analysis of the dentofacial profile. Angle Orthodontist, 26, 191-212.
Downs, W.B. (1948) Variation in facial relationships: Their significance in the treatment and prognosis. Amer-ican Journal of Orthodontics, 34, 812-840.
Riedel, R.A. (1952) The relation of maxillary structures to cranium in malocclusion and in normal occlusion. Angle Orthodontist, 22, 142-145.
Steiner, C.C. (1953) Cephalometrics for you and me. American Journal of Orthodontics, 39, 729-755.
Bishara, S.E. (1981) Longitudinal cephalometric standards from 5 years of age to adulthood. American Journal of Orthodontics 1981, 79, 35-44.
Scheideman, G.B., Bell, W.H., Legan, H.L., Finn, R.A. and Reisch, J.S. (1980) Cephalometric analysis of den-tofacial normals. American Journal of Orthodontics, 78, 404-420.
Argyropoulos, E. and Sassouni, V. (1989) Comparison of the dentofacial patterns for native Greek and Ameri-can-Caucasian adolescents. American Journal of Ortho-dontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 95, 238-249.
Franchi, L., Baccetti, T. and McNamara, J.A. Jr. (1998) Cephalometric floating norms for North American adults. Angle Orthodontist, 68, 497-502.
Farkas, L.G., Tompson, B., Phillips, J.H., Katic, M.J. and Cornfoot, M.L. (1999) Comparison of anthropometric and cephalometric measurements of the adult face. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 10, 18-25.
Huang, W.J., Taylor, R.W. and Dasanayake, A.P. (1998) Determining cephalometric norms for Caucasians and African Americans in Birmingham. Angle Orthodontist, 68, 503-512.
Drummond, R.A. (1968) A determination of cephalome-tric norms for the Negro race. American Journal of Or-thodontics, 54, 670-682.
Fonseca, R.J. and Klein, W.D. (1978) A cephalometric evaluation of American Negro women. American Journal of Orthodontics, 73, 152-160.
Cotton, W.N., Takano, W.S. and Wong, W. (1951) The Downs analysis applied to three other ethnic groups. An-gle Orthodontist, 21, 213-220.
Richardson, E.R. (1980) Racial differences in dimensional traits of the human face. Angle Orthodontist, 50, 301-311.
Kapila, S. (1989) Selected cephalometric angular norms in Kikuyu children. Angle Orthodontist, 59, 139-144.
Jacobson, A. (1978) The craniofacial skeletal pattern of the South African Negro. American Journal of Ortho-dontics, 73, 681-691.
Bacon, W., Girardin, P. and Turlot, J.C. (1983) A com-parison of cephalometric norms for the African Bantu and a Caucasoid population. European Journal of Or-thodontics, 5, 233-240.
Anderson, A.A., Anderson, A.C., Hornbuckle, A.C. and Hornbukle, K. (2000) Biological derivation of a range of cephalometric norms for children of African American descent (after Steiner). American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 118, 90-100.
Bailey, K.L. and Taylor, R.W. (1998) Mesh diagram cephalometric norms for Americans of African descent. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Or-thopedics, 114, 218-223.
Miyajima, K., McNamara, J.A. Jr, Kimura, T., Murata, S. and Iizuka, T. (1996) Craniofacial structure of Japanese and European-American adults with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces. American Journal of Orthodon-tics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 110, 431-438.
Engel, G. and Spolter, B.M. (1981) Cephalometric and visual norms for a Japanese population. American Journal of Orthodontics, 80, 48-60.
Kondo, S., Wakatsuki, E. and Shibagaki, H. (1999) A somatometric study of the head and face in Japanese adolescents. Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica, 76, 179-185.
Alcalde, R.E., Jinno, T., Pogrel, M.A. and Matsumura, T. (1998) Cephalometric norms in Japanese adults. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 56, 129-134.
Ioi, H., Nakata, S., Nakasima, A. and Counts, A.L. (2007) Comparison of cephalometric norms between Japanese and Caucasian adults in antero-posterior and vertical di-mension. European Journal of Orthodontics, 29, 493-499.
Yen, P.K.J. (1973) The facial configuration in a sample of Chinese males. Angle Orthodontist, 43, 301-304.
Cooke, M.S. and Wei, S.H.Y. (1988) Cephalometric “standards” for the southern Chinese. European Journal of Orthodontics, 10, 264-272.
Lew, K.K., Ho, K.K., Keng, S.B. and Ho, K.H. (1992) Soft tissue cephalometric norms in Chinese adults with esthetic facial profiles. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 50, 1184-1190.
Wu, J., Hagg, U. and Rabie, A.B. (2007) Chinese norms of McNamara’s cephalometric analysis. Angle Ortho-dontist, 77, 12-20. doi:10.2319/021606-62R.1
Obloj, B., Fudalej, P. and Dudkiewicz, Z. (2008) Cepha-lometric standards for Polish 10-year-olds with normal occlusion. Angle Orthodontist, 78, 262-269.
Moldez, M.A., Sato, K., Sugawara, J. and Mitani, H. (2006) Linear and angular Filipino cephalometric norms according to age and gender. Angle Orthodontist, 76, 800-805.
Swierenga, D., Oesterle, L.G. and Messersmith, M.L. (1994) Cephalometric values for adult Mexican -Americans. American Journal of Orthodontics & Den-tofacial Orthopedics, 106, 146-155.
Park, I., Bowman, D. and Klapper, L. (1989) Cephalo-metric study of Korean adults. American Journal of Or-thodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 96, 54-59.
Hwang, H.S., Kim, W.S. and McNamara, J.A. Jr. (2002) Ethnic differences in the soft tissue profile of Korean and European-American adults with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces. Angle Orthodontist, 72, 72-80.
Erbay, E.F., Canikliog?lu, C.M. and Erbay, S.K. (2002) Soft tissue profile in Anatolian Turkish adults: Part I. Evaluating of horizontal lip position using different soft tissue analyses. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 121, 57-64.
Erbay, E.F. and Canikliog?lu, C.M. (2002) Soft tissue profile in Anatolian Turkish adults: Part II. Comparison of different soft tissue analyses in the evaluation of beauty. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Ortho-pedics, 121, 65-72. doi:10.1067/mod.2002.119573
Basciftci, F.A., Uysal, T. and Bu¨yu¨kerkmen, A. (2003) Determination of Holdaway soft tissue norms in Anatolian Turkish adults. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 123, 395-400.
Basciftci, F.A., Uysal, T. and Buyukerkmen, A. (2004) Craniofacial structure of Anatolian Turkish adults with normal occlusions and well-balanced faces. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 125, 366-372. doi:10.1016/j.ajodo.2003.04.004
Nanda, R. and Nanda, R.S. (1969) Cephalometric study of the dentofacial complex of North Indians. Angle Or-thodontist, 39, 22-28.
Cerci, V., Martins, J.E. and de Oliveira, M.A. (1993) Cephalometric standards for white Brazilians. The Inter-national Journal of Adult Orthodontics & Orthogathic Surgery, 8, 287-292.
Evanko, A.M., Freeman, K. and Cisneros, G.J. (1997) Mesh diagram analysis: Developing a norm for Puerto Rican Americans. Angle Orthodontist, 67, 381-388.
Hajighadimi, M., Dougherty, H.L. and Garakani, F. (1981) Cephalometric evaluation of Iranian children and its comparison with Tweed’s and Steiner’s standards. American Journal of Orthodontics, 79, 192-197.
Loutfy, M.S., Ponitz, P. and Harris, J.E. (1971) Cepha-lometric standards for normal Egyptian face. Egyptian Dental Journal, 17, 91-100.
Shehata, F.I. (1982) Bimaxillary prognathism in the Nu-bian people of Egypt. Angle Orthodontist, 52, 19-25.
Bishara, S.E., Abdalla, E.M. and Hoppens, B.J. (1990) Cephalometric comparisons of dentofacial parameters between Egyptian and North American adolescents. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Or-thopedics, 97, 413-421.
Mouakeh, M. (2001) Cephalometric evaluation of cra-niofacial pattern of Syrian children with Class III maloc-clusion. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 119, 640-649.
Hamdan, A.M. and Rock, W.P. (2001) Cephalometric norms in an Arabic population. Journal of Orthodontics, 28, 297-300.
Shalhoub, S.Y., Sarhan, O.A. and Shaikh, H.S. (1987) Adult cephalometric norms for Saudi Arabians with a comparison of values for Saudi and North American Caucasians. British Journal of Orthodontics, 14, 273-279.
Sarhan, O.A. and Nashashibi, I.A. (1988) A comparative study between two randomly selected samples from which to derive standards for craniofacial measurements. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 15, 251-255.
Al-Jasser, N.M. (2000) Cephalometric evaluation of craniofacial variations in normal Saudi population ac-cording to Steiner analysis. Saudi Medical Journal, 21, 746-750.
Al-Jame, B., Artun, J., Al-Azemi, R., Behbehani, F. and Buhamra, S. (2006) Lateral cephalometric norms for adolescent Kuwaitis: Hard tissue measurements. Medical Principles and Practice, 15, 91-97.
Hassan, A.H. (2006) Cephalometric norms for Saudi adults living in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Angle Orthodontist, 76, 109-113.
Hashim, H.A. and AlBarakati, S.F. (2003) Cephalometric soft tissue profile analysis between two different ethnic groups: A comparative study. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 2, 60-73.
Al-Gunaid, T., Yamada, K., Yamaki, M. and Saito, I. (2007) Soft-tissue cephalometric norms in Yemeni men. American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Or-thopedics, 132, 576.e7-14.
Molhave, A. (1958) Sitting and standing posture in man. Ugeskr Laeger, 120, 1516-1518.
Solow, B. and Tallgren, A. (1971) Natural head position in standing subjects. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 29, 591-607.
Siersbaek-Nielsen, S. and Solow, B. (1982) Intra- and interexaminer variability in head posture recorded by dental auxiliaries. American Journal of Orthodontics, 82, 50-57.