ABSTRACT Sound source localization has numerous applications such as detection and localization of mechanical or structural failures in vehicles and buildings or bridges, security systems, collision avoidance, and robotic vision. The paper presents the design of an anechoic chamber, sensor arrays and an analysis of how the data acquired from the sensors could be used for sound source localization and object detection. An anechoic chamber is designed to create a clean environment which isolates the experiment from external noises and reverberation echoes. An FPGA based data acquisition system is developed for a flexible acoustic sensor array platform. Using this sensor platform, we investigate direction of arrival estimation and source localization experiments with different geometries and with different numbers of sensors. We further present a discussion of parameters that influence the sensitivity and accuracy of the results of these experiments.
Cite this paper
nullV. Kunin, M. Turqueti, J. Saniie and E. Oruklu, "Direction of Arrival Estimation and Localization Using Acoustic Sensor Arrays," Journal of Sensor Technology, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2011, pp. 71-80. doi: 10.4236/jst.2011.13010.
 H. Alghassi, “Eye Array Sound Source Localization,” Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 2008.
 J. Eckert, R. German and F. Dressler, “An Indoor Localization Framework for Four-Rotor Flying Robots Using Low-Power Sensor Nodes,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 60, No. 2, 2011, pp. 336-344. doi:10.1109/TIM.2010.2085850
 S. Harput and A. Buzkurt, “Ultrasonic Phased Array Device for Acoustic Imaging in Air,” IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 8, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1755-1762.
 S. J. Kim and B. K. Kim, “Accurate Hybrid Global Self-Localization Algorithm for Indoor Mobile Robots with Two-Dimensional Isotropic Ultrasonic Receivers,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 99, 2011, pp.1-14,.
 J. R. Llata, E. G. Sarabia and J. P. Oria, “Three Dimensional Robotic Vision Using Ultrasonic Sensors,” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Spring-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2002, pp. 267-284.
 Y. Ming, S. L. Hill and J. O. Gray, “Localization of Plane Reflectors Using a Wide-Beamwidth Ultrasound Transducer Arrangement,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 46, No. 3, 1997, pp. 711-716. doi:10.1109/19.585438
 A. Nishitani, Y. Nishida and H. Mizoguch, “Omnidirectional Ultrasonic Location Sensor,” IEEE Sensors Conference, Irvine, October-November 2005, p. 4.
 B. Shaw, “Source Localization and Beamforming,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2002.
 C. C. Tsai, “A Localization System of a Mobile Robot by Fusing Dead-Reckoning, and Ultrasonic Measurements,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 19, No. 5, 1998, pp.1399-1404.
 M. Turqueti, J. Saniie and E. Oruklu, “Scalable Acoustic Imaging Platform Using MEMS Array,” EIT Electro/Information Technology conference, Normal, 20-22 May 2010.
 J. Benesty, J. Chen and Y. Huang, “Microphone Array Signal Processing,” Spring-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2008.
 M. Brandstein and D. Ward, Eds., “Microphone Arrays Signal Processing Techniques and Applications,” Spring-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2001.
 V. D. Rabinkin, J. R. Renomeron, C. J. French and L. J. Flanagan, “Estimation of Wavefront Arrival Delay Using the Cross-Power Spectrum Phase Technique,” 132nd Meeting of the Acoustic Society of America, Honolulu, 1996.
 I. McCowan, “Microphone Arrays: A Tutorial,” Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, 2001.
 J. M. Valin, F. Michaud, J. Rouat and D. L′etourneau, “Robust Sound Source Localization Using a Microphone Array on a Mobile Robot,” Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE/RSJ, International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Las Vegas, Vol. 2, 2003, pp. 1228-1233.
 M. Turqueti, R. Rivera, A. Prosser, J. Andresen and J. Chramowicz, “CAPTAN: A Hardware Architecture for Integrated Data Acquisition, Control and Analysis for Detector Development,” IEEE Nuclear science symposium conference, Dresden, October 2008, pp. 3546-3552.