Back
 AS  Vol.8 No.5 , May 2017
Evaluation of 2,4-D-Choline Based Herbicide Systems in 2,4-D Tolerant Soybean (Glycine max L.)
Abstract: Weeds are the most limiting factor in soybean production in South Carolina. With early emergence and rapid growth, weeds effectlively compete for water, nutrients, and light resources. The recent evolution of herbicide resistant weeds has made it increasingly difficult for growers to effectively control weeds in soybean. Glyphosate and ALS-resistant Palmer amaranth biotypes have spread rapidly throughout South Carolina, especially in areas where resistance management is lacking. Soybean varieties have been recently developed with tolerance to 2,4-D. Field experiments were conducted at the Clemson University Edisto Research and Education Center located near Blackville, SC in 2012 and 2013 to evaluate selected 2,4-D choline based herbicide programs for weed management in 2,4-D tolerant soybean. Overall, all herbicide treatments were effective in controlling weeds at the POST2 timing. Palmer amaranth control was excellent; however, pitted morningglory was the most difficult. The 2,4-D plus glyphosate pre-mixture provided excellent control for all three weed species with >95% control at POST2 timing. In these treatments, the rate of 2,4-D choline plus glyphosate (1.09 kg ae ha-1 or 1.64 kg ae ha-1) did not have a significant effect on weed control (P = 0.3772). There was a decrease in pitted morningglory control 3 WAP in 2012 vs 2013 in plots treated with S-metolachlor + fomesafen because of a lack of activating soil moisture in 2012. Results from this study showed that all treatments evaluated provided good to excellent control of all 3 weed species. Based on the herbicide programs evaluated in the study, herbicide resistant weeds, such as Palmer amaranth, can be effectively controlled when treated at the correct growth stage.
Cite this paper: Joseph, D. , Sanders, C. and Marshall, M. (2017) Evaluation of 2,4-D-Choline Based Herbicide Systems in 2,4-D Tolerant Soybean (Glycine max L.). Agricultural Sciences, 8, 385-396. doi: 10.4236/as.2017.85029.
References

[1]   Rajcan, I. and Swanton, C.J. (2001) Understanding Maize-Weed Competition: Resource Competition, Light Quality and the Whole Plant. Field Crops Research, 71, 139-150.

[2]   Eaton, B.J., Russ, O.G. and Feltner, K.C. (1976) Competition of Velvetleaf, Prickly, Sida, and Venice Mallow in Soybeans. Weed Science, 24, 224-228.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4042592

[3]   Buchanan, G.A. and Burns, E.R. (1971) Weed Competition in Cotton. I. Sicklepod and Tall Morningglory. Weed Science, 19, 576-579.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4041705

[4]   Barrentine, W.L. (1974) Common Cocklebur Competition in Soybeans. Weed Science, 22, 600-603.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4042480

[5]   Bensch, C.N., Horak, M.J. and Peterson, D. (2003) Interference of Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Palmer Amaranth (A. palmeri), and Common Waterhemp (A. rudis) in Soybean. Weed Science, 51, 37-43.
https://doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2003)051[0037:IORPAR]2.0.CO;2

[6]   Thurlow, D.L. and Buchanan, G.A. (1972) Competition of Sicklepod with Soybeans. Weed Science, 20, 379-384.

[7]   Buhler, D.D. and Gunsolus, J.L. (1996) Effect of Date of Preplant Tillage and Planting of Weed Populations and Mechanical Weed Control in Soybean (Glycine max). Weed Science, 44, 373-379.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4045692

[8]   Norsworthy, J.K. and Oliver, L.R. (2002) Pitted Morningglory Interference in Drill-Seeded Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean. Weed Science, 50, 26-33.
https://doi.org/10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0026:PMIIDS]2.0.CO;2

[9]   Van Der Weide, R.Y., Bleeker, P.O., Achten, V.T.J.M., Lotz, L.A.P., Fogelberg, F. and Melander, M. (2008) Innovation in Mechanical Weed Control in Crop Rows. Weed Research, 48, 215-224.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2008.00629.x

[10]   Rasmussen, I.A. (2004) The Effect of Sowing Date, Stale Seedbed, Row Width and Mechanical Control on Weeds and Yield of Organic Winter Wheat. Weed Research, 44, 12-20.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3180.2003.00367.x

[11]   Grossmann, K. (2009) Auxin Herbicides: Current Status of Mechanism and Mode of Action. Pest Management Science, 66, 113-120.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.1860

[12]   Jasieniuk, M., Brule-Babel, A.L. and Morrison, I.N. (1996) The Evolution and Genetics of Herbicide Resistance in Weeds. Weed Science, 44, 176-193.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4045802

[13]   Prather, T.S., Ditomaso, J.M. and Holt, J.S. (2000) Herbicide Resistance: Definition and Management Strategies. Publication 8012, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 14 p.

[14]   Heap, I.M. (2017) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.
http://www.weedscience.com

[15]   Culpepper, A.S., Grey, T.L., Vencill, W.K., Kichler, J.M., Webster, T.M., Brown, S.M., York, A.C., Davis, J.W. and Hanna, W.W. (2006) Glyphosate Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Confirmed in Georgia. Weed Science, 54, 620-626.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-06-001R.1

[16]   Norsworthy, J.K. (2003) Use of Soybean Production Surveys to Determine Weed Management Needs of South Carolina Farmers. Weed Technology, 17, 195-201.
https://doi.org/10.1614/0890-037X(2003)017[0195:UOSPST]2.0.CO;2

[17]   Shaner, D.L. (2000) The Impact of Glyphosate-Tolerant Crops on the Use of Other Herbicides and on Resistance Management. Pest Management Science, 56, 320-326.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1526-4998(200004)56:4<320::AID-PS125>3.0.CO;2-B

[18]   Beckie, H.J., Harker, K.N., Hall, L.M., Warwick, S.I., Legere, A., Sikkema, P.H., Clayton, G.W., Thomas, A.G., Leeson, J.Y., Seguin-Swartz, G. and Simard, M.J. (2006) A Decade of Herbicide Resistance Crops in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 86, 1243-1264.
https://doi.org/10.4141/P05-193

[19]   Robinson, A.P., Simpson, D.M. and Johnson, W.G. (2012) Summer Annual Weed Control with 2,4-D and Glyphosate. Weed Technology, 26, 657-660.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-12-00081.1

[20]   Que Hee, S.S. and Sutherland, R.G. (1974) Volatilization of Various Esters and Salts of 2,4-D. Weed Science, 22, 313-318.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4042312

[21]   Strachan, S.D., Casini, M.S., Heldreth, K.M., Scocas, J.A., Nissen, S.J., Bukun, B., Lindenmayer, R.B., Shaner, D.L., Westra, P. and Brunk, G. (2009) Vapor Movement of Synthetic Auxin Herbicides: Aminocyclopyrachlor, Aminocyclopyrachlor-Methyl Ester, Dicamba, and Aminopyralid. Weed Science, 58, 103-108.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-D-09-00011.1

[22]   Wolf, T.M., Grover, R., Wallace, K., Shewchuk, S.R. and Maybank, J. (1993) Effect of Protective Shields on Drift and Deposition Characteristics of Field Sprayers. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 73, 1261-1273.
https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps93-165

[23]   Sciumbato, A.S., Chandler, J.M., Senseman, S.A., Bovey, R.W. and Smith, K.L. (2004) Determining Exposure to Auxin-Like Herbicides. I. Quantifying Injury to Cotton and Soybean. Weed Technology, 18, 1125-1134.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-03-105R1

[24]   Whitaker, J.R., York, A.C., Jordan, D.L. and Culpepper, A.S. (2010) Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Control in Soybean with Glyphosate and Conventional Herbicide Systems. Weed Technology, 24, 403-410.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-09-00043.1

[25]   Hoffner, A.E., Jordan, D.L., Chandi, A., York, A.C., Dunphy, E.J. and Everman, W.J. (2012) Management of Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Glufosinate-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max) with Sequential Applications of Herbicides. ISRN Agronomy, 2012, Article ID: 131650.

[26]   Venvill, W.K., Wilcut, J.W. and Monks, C.D. (1995) Efficacy and Economy of Weed Management Systems for Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) and Morningglory (Ipomoea spp.) Control in Soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 9, 456-461.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3987656

[27]   Elmore, C.D., Hurst, H.R. and Austin, D.F. (1990) Biology and Control of Morningglory (Ipomoea spp.). Reviews of Weed Science, 5, 83-114.

[28]   Seibert, J.D., Griffin, J.L. and Jones, C.A. (2004) Red Morningglory (Ipomoea coccinea) Control with 2,4-D and Alternative Herbicides. Weed Technology, 18, 38-44.
https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-03-071R1

[29]   Culpepper, A.S., Gimenez, A.E., York, A.C., Batts, R.B. and Wilcut, J.W. (2001) Morningglory (Ipomoea spp.) and Large Crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) Control with Glyphosate and 2,4-DB Mixtures in Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technology, 15, 56-61.
https://doi.org/10.1614/0890-037X(2001)015[0056:MISALC]2.0.CO;2

[30]   Anonymous (2017) Enlist Duo Herbicide Product Label. Dow AgroSciences Publication No. D02-407-003. Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, IN, 7 p.

 
 
Top