Back
 JBM  Vol.5 No.5 , May 2017
Effects of Biochemical and Molecular Inhibitors of Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria
Abstract: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the green alga Ulva lactuca and medicinal plant Nigella sativa extract on the activity of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacteria were incubated with the crude extracts and extracellular free potassium and phosphorus ions were measured in the medium. The levels of potassium and phosphorous were the maximum in the medium of S. aureus treated with N. sativa extract. The medium of P. aeruginosa incubated with U. lactuca extract was found to have the lowest phosphorous and the greatest potassium levels. The highest activity against P. aeruginosa was noticed with U. lactuca extract, where it caused reduction in the dry weight and glucose consumption of bacteria estimated by 28.41% and 41.09%, respectively. The antibacterial activity of N. sativa extract was the greatest against S. aureus and recorded 32.59% and 39.96% reduction in the bacterial dry weight and glucose uptake, respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopy study showed morphological changes in the cell wall of treated bacteria. The treatment of bacteria with the tested extract induced gene mutations. The results assessed the possible application of U. lactuca and N. sativa as a source of pharmacological benefits.
Cite this paper: Al-Zahrani, A. , Al-Judaibi, E. , Omar, H. and Al-Judaibi, A. (2017) Effects of Biochemical and Molecular Inhibitors of Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 5, 44-55. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2017.55005.
References

[1]   Magiorakos, A.-P., Srinivasan, A., Carey, R.B., Carmeli, Y., Falagas, M.E., Giske, C.G., Harbarth, S., Hindler, J.F., Kahlmeter, G., Olsson-Liljequist, B., Paterson, D.L., Rice, L.B., Stelling, J., Struelens, M.J., Vatopoulos, A., Weber, J.T. and Monnet, D.L. (2012) Multidrug-Resistant, Extensively Drug-Resistant and Pandrug-Resistant Bacteria: An International Expert Proposal for Interim Standard Definitions for Acquired Resistance. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 18, 268-281.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03570.x

[2]   Pontikis, K., Karaiskos, I., Bastani, S., Dimopoulos, G., Kalogirou, M., Katsiari, M., Oikonomou, A., Poulakou, G., Roilides, E. and Giamarellou, H. (2014) Outcomes of Critically Ill Intensive Care Unit Patients Treated with Fosfomycin for Infections Due to Pandrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacteria. Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 43, 52-59.

[3]   Giamarellou, H., Galani, L., Baziaka, F. and Karaiskos, I. (2013) Effectiveness of a Double-Carbapenem Regimen for Infections in Humans Due to Carbapenemase-Producing Pandrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 5, 2388-2390.
https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02399-12

[4]   Theuretzbache, U. (2013) Global Antibacterial Resistance: The Never-Ending Story. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, 1, 63-69.

[5]   Al-Judaibi, A. (2014) Antibacterial Effects of Extracts of Two Types of Red Sea Algae. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2, 74-82.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jbm.2014.22012

[6]   Jebasingh, S.E.J., Rajesh, R.P. and Lakshmikandan, M. (2011) Antibacterial Activity of Seaweed Ulva lactuca Against Fish Pathogens Isolated from Marine Fish Katsuwonus pelamis. International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology, 3, 2306-2314.

[7]   Demirel, Z., Yilmaz-Koz, F.F., Karabay-Yavasoglu, U., Ozdemir, G. and Sukatar, A. (2009) Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Brown Algae from the Aegean Sea. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 74, 619-628.
https://doi.org/10.2298/JSC0906619D

[8]   Blunt, J.W., Copp, B.R., Keyzers, R.A., Munroa, M.H.G. and Prinsep, M.R. (2014) Marine Natural Products. Natural Product Reports, 31, 160-258.
https://doi.org/10.1039/c3np70117d

[9]   Zbakh, H., Chiheb, H., Bouziane, H., Sánchez, V.M. and Riadi, H. (2012) Antibacterial Activity of Benthic Marine Algae Extracts from the Mediterranean Coast of Morocco. Journal of Microbiology, 2, 219-228.

[10]   Pushparaj, A., Raubbin, R.S. and Balasankar, T. (2014) Antibacterial Activity of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Ulva lactuca Extracts against Human Pathogenic Bacteria. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, 3, 432-436.

[11]   Al-Zahrani, A., Al-Haj, N., Omer, H. and Al-Judaibi, A. (2014) Impact of Extracts of Marine Macroalgae on Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria. Journal of Microbiology Research, 4, 18-24.

[12]   Ibrahim, M.B. (1997) Anti-Microbial Effects of Extract Leaf, Stem and Root Bark of Anogeissus leiocarpus on S. aureus, S. pyogenes, E. coli and Proteus vulgaris. Journal of Pharmaceutical Development, 2, 20-30.

[13]   Ogundipe, O., Akinbiyi, O. and Moody, J.O. (1998) Antibacterial Activities of Essential Ornamental Plants. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine, 2, 46-47.
https://doi.org/10.4314/njnpm.v2i1.11783

[14]   Abdul, H., Saleem, S., Chaudhary, S., Barkaat, M. and Arshad, M.U. (2008) Antibacterial Activity of Nigella sativa against Clinical Isolates of Methicillin Resistant Staphyloccocus aureus. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad, 20, 72-74.

[15]   Sundaram, S., Purwar, S., Singh, S.K. and Dwivedi, P. (2014) Diversity among 20 Accession of Three Germplasm of the Medicinal Plant, Ocimum (O. gratissimum, O. sanctum and O. basilicum, Lamiaceae). Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 8, 640-645.
https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR12.1188

[16]   Akthar, M.S., Degaga, B. and Azam, T. (2014) Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Medicinal Plants against the Pathogenic Microorganisms: A Review. Issues in Biological Sciences and Pharmaceutical Research, 2, 1-7.

[17]   Witkowska, A.M., Hickey, D.K. and Wilkinson, M.G. (2014) Effect of Variation in Food Components and Composition on the Antimicrobial Activity of Oregano and Clove Essential Oils in Broth and in a Reformulated Reduced Salt Vegetable Soup Product. Journal of Food Research, 3, 92-106. https://doi.org/10.5539/jfr.v3n6p92

[18]   Kazemi, M. (2014) Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activity of Nigella sativa L. Essential Oil. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 17, 1002-1011. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2014.914857

[19]   Vieira, M.L.A., Johann, S., Hughes, F.M., Rosa, C.A. and Rosa, L.H. (2014) The Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Medicinal Plant Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae) from the Brazilian savannah. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 60, 847-856.
https://doi.org/10.1139/cjm-2014-0449

[20]   Abdaslam, S.A., Hassan, M.A., Kaheel, H.H., Abobaker, T.M., Alnourain, T.H., Hamdan, H.A., Shankar, S.G. and Thambirajah, J.J. (2014) Isolation of Escherichia coli O157 and Other Food Borne Pathogens from Meat Products and Their Susceptibility to Different Antimicrobial Agents. Current Research in Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2, 391-397.

[21]   Kmlnd, A. and Ahmad, I.Z. (2014) Alteraion Atbaceril Potenial of Nigela stiva L. Se during Different Phase of Germination. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science, 3, 268-282.

[22]   Vijayakumar, M., Priya, K., Nancy, F.T., Noorlidah, A. and Ahmed, A.B.A. (2013) Biosynthesis, Characterization and Anti-Bacterial Effect of Plant Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Using Artemisia nilagirica. Industrial Crops and Products, 41, 235- 240.

[23]   Ranjan, P., Das, M.P., Kumar, M.S., Anbarasi, P., Sindhu, S., Sagadevan, E. and Arumugam, P. (2013) Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles from Nigella sativa and Its Application against UTI Causing Bacteria.

[24]   CLSI (2012) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard—Eleventh Edition. CLSI Document M02-A11. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, 32(1).

[25]   CLSI (2007) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Seventeenth Information Supplement. CLSI Document M100-S17 (M2-A7 and M7-A7), Clinical and laboratory Standards institute, Wayne, 27(1).

[26]   Joshua, M. and Takudzwa, M. (2013) Antibacterial Properties of Mangifera Indica on staphylococcus aureus. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, 14, 62-74.

[27]   Lambert, R.J.W., Skandamis, P.N., Coote, P.J. and Nychas, G.-J.E. (2001) A Study of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Mode of Action of Oregano Essential Oil, Thymol and Carvacrol. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 91, 453-462.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01428.x

[28]   Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J. (1997) Brock Biology of Microorganisms. 8th Edition, Prentice Hall International, Inc., New York.

[29]   Karthy, E.S., Ranjitha, P. and Mohankumar, A. (2009) Antimicrobial Potential of Plant Seed Extracts against Multidrug Resistant Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDR-MRSA). International Journal of Biology, 1, 34.
https://doi.org/10.5539/ijb.v1n1p34

[30]   Walsh, C. (2003) Antibiotics: Actions, Origins, Resistance. American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Application.
https://doi.org/10.1128/9781555817886

[31]   Breukink, E. and de Kruijff, B. (2006) Lipid II as a Target for Antibiotics. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 5, 321-323.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd2004

[32]   Patel, J.P., Gami, B. and Patel, K. (2010) Evaluation of in Vitro Schizonticidal Properties of Acetone Extract of Some Indian Medicinal Plants. Advances in Biological Research, 4, 253-258.

[33]   George, D.M., Alexandru, M.G., Keng-Shiang, H., Ludovic, E.B. and Cornelia, B. (2015) Prevention of Microbial Communities: Novel Approaches Based Natural Products. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 16, 94-111.
https://doi.org/10.2174/138920101602150112145916

[34]   Al-Judaibi, A. and Al-Yousef, F. (2013) Effect of Natural Products from Plant Extracts on Gram-Positive Cocci. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 83, 315-319.

[35]   Al-Judaibi, A., Al-Zahrani, A., Altammar, K.A., Ismail, S.B. and Darweesh, N.T. (2014) Comparative Study of An-tibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts from Several Regions of Asia. American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 9, 139-147.
https://doi.org/10.3844/ajptsp.2014.139.147

[36]   Singh, S., Das, S.S., Singh, G., Schuff, C., de Lampasona, M.P. and Catalán, C.A.N. (2014) Composition, in Vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oil and Oleoresins Obtained from Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa L.). BioMed Research International, 2014, Article ID: 918209.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/918209

[37]   Hussain, T., Arshad, M., Khan, S., Sattar, H. and Qureshi, M.S. (2011) In Vitro Screening of Methanol Plant Extracts for their Antibacterial Activity. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43, 531-538.

[38]   Haloci, E., Manfredini, S., Toska, V., Vertuani, S., Ziosi, P., Topi, I. and Kolani, H. (2012) Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity Assessment of Nigella Sativa Essential Oils. International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation, 6, 1081-1083.

[39]   Ozmen, A., Basbülbül, G. and Aydin, T. (2007) Antimitotic and Antibacterial Effects of the Nigella sativa L. Seed. Caryologia, 60, 270-272.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00087114.2007.10797947

[40]   Johnson, B.M., Raja, D.P., Arockiaraj, A.A. and Vinnarasi, J. (2014) Chemical Constituents and Their Biological Activity of Ulva lactuca LINN. International Journal of Pharmaceutics and Drug Analysis, 2, 595-600.

[41]   Kandhasamy, M. and Arunachalam, K.D. (2008) Evaluation of in Vitro Antibacterial Property of Seaweeds of Southeast Coast of India. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 1958-1961.
https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB08.120

[42]   Kim, I.H., Lee, D.-G., Lee, S.H., Ha, J.-M., Ha, B.-J., Kim, S.-K. and Lee, J.-H. (2007) Antibacterial Activity of Ulva lactucaagainst Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 12, 579-582.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02931358

[43]   Chandrasekaran, M., Venkatesalu, V. and Raj, G.A. (2014) Antibacterial Activity of Selected Marine Macro Algae against Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus faecalis. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 2, 940-946.

[44]   Soberón, J.R., Sgariglia, M.A., Dip Maderuelo, M.R., Andina, M.L., Sampietro, D.A. and Vattuone, M.A. (2014) Antibacterial Activities of Ligaria cuneifolia and Jodina rhombifolia Leaf Extracts against Phytopathogenic and Clinical Bacteria. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 118, 599-605.

[45]   Sanadgol, N. (2014) Methicillin-Resistance Staphylococcus aureus in Southeast Iran: Herbal Control and Detection Methods Comparison. Journal of Medical Science, 14, 123-129.
https://doi.org/10.3923/jms.2014.123.129

[46]   Mumy, K.L. and Findlay, R.H. (2004) Convenient Determination of DNA Extraction Efficiency Using an External DNA Recovery Standard and Quantitative-Competitive PCR. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 57, 259-268.

 
 
Top