NS  Vol.3 No.9 , September 2011
K-Ar age, geochemical, and Sr-Pb Isotopic compositions of keban magmatics, elazig, EasternAnatolia, Turkey
Abstract: Keban magmatics consist of plutonic rocks of acidic and intermediate compositions with diffe rent phases. They are the equivalent of surface rocks. In the current study on plutonic rocks, general petrographic features, disequilibrium textures such as skeletal formation in minerals, poikilitic texture, oscillatory zoning, and mineral fragmentation, and growth states are observed. Besides these microscopic properties, the existence of rounded mafic enclaves of various sizes, petrographic synplutonic dykes, and field data support the idea that mafic and felsic magmas are mixed. Keban magmatics have I-type, metaluminous-peraluminous characteristics. Diorites and quartz diorites have low-K tholeiitic features, whereas tonalites have low-K calcalkaline features. Compared with diorites, tonalites are richer in terms of LREE (Rock/ Chondrite); Rb, Sr, and Ba (LILE); and Hf, Zr, Th, and U (HFSE) elements. LILE enrichment, which signals the crustal contamination of mantle- originated magmas, is particularly observable in tonalites. In both rock groups, the negative anomaly of Nb is a sign of similarity of pluton to the subduction zone magma series. Based on the K-Ar geochronology dating of amphibole minerals, the ages of these rocks are found to be 75.65 ± 1.5 and 59.77 ± 1.2 Ma in tonalites and 84.76 ± 1.8 and 84.35 ± 1.7 Ma in diorite and quartz diorites. The 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios in tonalites are 0.705405 and 0.706053, whereas these ratios are 0.704828 and 0.704754 in dioritic rocks. Pb isotope ratios are similar in both rock types.
Cite this paper: Kurum, S. (2011) K-Ar age, geochemical, and Sr-Pb Isotopic compositions of keban magmatics, elazig, EasternAnatolia, Turkey. Natural Science, 3, 750-767. doi: 10.4236/ns.2011.39100.

[1]   Akta?, G. and Robertson, H.F. (1984) The maden complex, S E Turkey: Evolution of a neotethyan active margin: The geological evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. In: Dixon, J.E and Robertson, A.H.F., Eds. Geology Society of London Special Publication, 17, 372-402.

[2]   Asutay, H.J. (1988) Baskil (Elaz??) ?evresinin jeolojik ve petrografik incelenmesi. MTA Dergisi, 107.

[3]   Yazgan, E. and Chessex, R. (1991) Geology and tectonic evolution of the south-eastern Taurides in the region of Malatya. Turkish Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 3, 1-42.

[4]   Akgül, B. and Bing?l, A.F. (1997) Piran k?yü (Keban) ?evresindeki magmatik kaya?lar?n petrografik ve petrolojik ?zellikleri. Sel?uk üniv. Müh. Mim. Fak. 20. Y?l Jeoloji Sempozyumu 13-24.

[5]   R?zao?lu, T., Parlak, O., Koller, F., H?ck, V. and ??ler, F. (2005) Geochemistry and tectonic significance of the Baskil granitoid rocks from the Southeast Anatolian Orogen (Elaz??, Turkey). International symposium on the geodynamics of eastern Mediterranean: Active tectonics of the Aegean region. Kadir Has University, ?stanbul, 228.

[6]   R?zao?lu, T., Parlak, O., H?ck, V., Koller, F., Hames, W.E. and Billor, Z. (2009) Andean-type active margin formation in the eastern Taurides: Geochemical and geochrono- gical evidence from the Baskil granitoid (Elaz??, SE Turkey). Tectonophysics, 473, 188-207.

[7]   Parlak, O. (2006) Geodynamic significance of granitoid magmatism in the southeast Anatolian orogen: Geochemical and geochronolgical evidence from G?ksun- Af?in (Kahramanmara?, Turkey) region. International Journal of Earth Sciences (Geol Rundsch), 95, 609-627. doi:10.1007/s00531-005-0058-2

[8]   Parlak, O., R?zao?lu, T., Ba?c?, U., Karao?lan, F. and H?ck, V. (2009) Tectonic significance of the geochemistry and petrology of ophiolites in southeast Anatolia, Turkey. Tectonophysics, 473, 173-187. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2008.08.002

[9]   MTA. (2002) 1/500.000 Turkiye jeoloji haritasi. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Ankara.

[10]   R?zao?lu, T., Parlak, O., H?ck, V. and ??ler, F. (2006) Nature and significance of late cretaceous ophiolitic rocks and its relation to the Baskil granitoid in Elaz?? region, SE Turkey. Geological Society, Special Publication, 260, 327-350.

[11]   Tarhan, N. (1986) Do?u toroslarda neo-tetis’in kapan?m?na ili?kin granitoyid magmalar?n?n evrimi ve k?keni. M.T.A. Dergisi, 107, 95-110.

[12]   Y?lmaz, Y. (1993) New evidence and model on the evolution of the Southeast Anatolian orogen. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 105, 251-271.

[13]   Robertson, A.H.F., Usta?mer, T., Parlak, O., ünlügen?, U.C., Ta?l?, K. and Inan, N. (2006a) Erratum to “The berit transect of the Tauride thrust belt, S Turkey: Late cretaceous-early cenozoic accretionary/collisional pro- cesses related to closure of the Southern Neotethys. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27, 108-145. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2005.02.004

[14]   Robertson, A.H.F., Parlak, O., R?zao?lu, T., et al. (2006b) Late Cretaceous-Mid Paleocene tectonic evolution of the eastern Taurus Maountains and southern Tethyan ocean evidence from the Elaz?? region, SE Turkey. Geological Society, Special Publication, 272, 231-270.

[15]   Hemton, M.R. and Savc?, G. (1982) Elazi? volkanik karma????n?n petrolojik ve yap?sal ?zellikleri. Türkiye Jeoloji Kurumu Bülteni, 25, 143-150.

[16]   Ste?n?tz, G., Lang, B., Mor, D. and Dallal, C. (1983) The K-Ar laboratory at the Geological Survey of Israel. Isr. Geol. Surv. Current Research, 19, 97-98.

[17]   Kotlarsky, P., Kapusta, J., Lang, B. and Ste?n?tz, G. (1992) Calculation of isotopic ratios of argon on the MM-1200 mass-spectrometer at the Geological Survey of Israel. Isr. Geol. Surv. Rep. TR-GSI, 17.

[18]   Yilmaz, Y. (1990) Comparison of young associations of western and eastern Anatolia formed under compressional regime. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 44, 69-87. doi:10.1016/0377-0273(90)90012-5

[19]   Ketin, I. (1983) Türkiye jeolojisine genel bir bak??: ?.T.ü. Kütüphanesi. 595.

[20]   Perin?ek, D. and Kozlu, H. (1984) Stratigraphy and structural relations of the units in the Af?in-Elbistan- Do?an?ehir region (Eastern Taurus). Geology of the Taurus Belt. Proceedings of International Symposium, MTA, Ankara, 26-29 September 1984, 181-198.

[21]   Kipman, E. (1983) Keban volkanitlerinin petrolojisi. ?.ü. Yer Bilimleri Dergisi, 3, 205-230.

[22]   Kaya, A. (2001) Keban (Elaz??) civar?ndaki metamorfitlerin yap?sal analizi ve tektonik evrimi. F?rat üniv. Fen Bil. Enst. Jeoloji Müh. Anabilim Dal?, Doktora Tezi 133s (In Turkish with English abstract).

[23]   Yazgan, E. (1983) A geotraverse between the Arabian platforme and the Munzur Nappes. Int.Symp. on the geology of the Taurus Belt Field Guide Book Excursiony.

[24]   Yazgan, E. (1984) Geodynamics evolution of the Eastern Taurus region. Geology of the Taurus Belt International Symposium, Ankara, 26-29 September 1984, 199-208.

[25]   Ural, M. and Kürüm, S. (2009) Microscopic and diffractometric studies inferred from skarn zonations between the keban metamorphics and elaz?? magmatites, around Elaz??, F.ü. Turkish Journal of Science, 4, 87-102.

[26]   Didier, J. and Barbarin, B. (1991) The different types of enclaves in granites-nomenclature: Enclaves and granite petrology. In Didier, J. and Barbarin, B., Eds., Developments in Petrology, Elsevier, 13, 19-23.

[27]   Barbarin, B. and Didier, J. (1992) Genesis and evolution of mafic microgranular enclaves through various types of interaction between coexisting felsic and mafic magmas. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Earth Sciences, 83, 145-153.

[28]   Debon, F. and Le Fort, P. (1983) A chemical-minera- logical classification of common plutonic rocks and associations. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Earth Sciences, 73, 135-149.

[29]   Hibbard, M.J. (1995). Petrography to petrogenesis. Prentice Hall, 587.

[30]   ?nal, A. (2008) Baskil granitoyidi’nin K-Ar so?uma ya??, tüm kaya? ve Pb-Sr izotop jeokimyas?. Jeoloji Kurultay? Bildiri ?zleri, Ankara, 61, 110-111.

[31]   Irvine, T.N. and Baragar, W.R.A. (1971) A guide to the chemical classification of common volcanic rocks. Canada Journal of Earth Sciences, 8, 523-548. doi:10.1139/e71-055

[32]   Rickwood, P.C. (1989) Boundary lines within petrologic diagrams which use oxides of major and minor elements. Lithos, 22, 247-263. doi:10.1016/0024-4937(89)90028-5

[33]   Le Maitre, R.W., Bateman, P., Dudek, A., et al. (1989) A classification of igneous rocks and glossary of terms. Recommendations of the international union of geological sciences subcommission on the systematics of igneous rocks. Blackwell Science Publication, Hoboken, 193.

[34]   Manier, P.D. and Piccoli, P.M. (1989) Tectonic discrimination of granitoids. Geological Society of American Bulletin, 101, 635-643. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1989)101<0635:TDOG>2.3.CO;2

[35]   White, A.J.R. and Chappell, B.W. (1988) Some supracrustal (S-type) granites of the Lachlan Fold Belt. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Earth Sciences, 79, 169-181.

[36]   Collins, W.J., Beams, S.D., White, A.J.R. and Chappell, B.W. (1982) Nature and origin of A-type granites with particular reference to southeastern Australia. Contrib Mineral Petrology, 80, 189-200. doi:10.1007/BF00374895

[37]   Rollinson, H.R. (1993) Using geochemical data: Evaluation, presentation, interpretation. Longman Scientific and Technical, Wiley, New York, 352.

[38]   Sun, S.S. and McDonough, W.F. (1989) Chemical andisotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: Implications for mantle composition and processes: Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. In: Saunders A.D. and Norry M.J., Eds, Geological Society, Special Publication, 42, 313-345.

[39]   Boztu?, D., Er?in, A.I., Kuru?elik, M.K., et al. (2006) Main geochemical characteristics of the composite Ka?kar batholith derived from the subduction through collision to extensional stages of Neo-Tethyan convergence system in the Eastern Pontides, Turkey. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27, 286-302.

[40]   Boztu?, D. and Sat?r, M. (2008) Sr-Nd-Pb-isotopic constraints on the genesis of collision-related S-I-A-type granite associations in central Anatolia, Turkey. The 6th Hutton Symposium on the Origin of Granites and Related Rocks. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions Royal Society of Edinburgh, 100, 1-2.

[41]   Zindler, A. and Hart, S. (1986) Chemical geodynamics. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science, 14, 493-571. doi:10.1146/annurev.ea.14.050186.002425

[42]   McDougall, I. and Harrison, T.M. (1999) Geochronology and thermo chronology by the 40Ar/39Ar method. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[43]   K?prüba??, N. and Aldanmaz, E. (2004) Geochemical constrants on the petrogenesis of Cenozoic I-type granitoids in Northwestern Anatolia. Turkey: Evidence for magma generation by lithospheric delamination in a post- collisional setting. International Geology Reviews, 46, 705-729.

[44]   Aldanmaz, E., Pearce, J.A., Thirlwall, M.F. and Mitchell, J.G. (2000) Petrogenetic evolution of the late Cenozoic, post-collision volcanism in western Anatolia. Turkey. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 102, 67-95. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(00)00182-7

[45]   Keskin, M., Pearce, J.A. and Mitchell, J.G. (1998) Volcano-stratigraphy and geochemistry of collision volcanism on the Erzurum-Kars plateau, northeastern Turkey. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 85, 355-404. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(98)00063-8

[46]   Nicholson, H. and Latin, D. (1992) Olivine Tholeiites from Krafla, Iceland: Evidence for Variations in Melt Fraction within a Plume. Journal of Petrology, 33, 1105- 1124.

[47]   Hibbard, M.J. (1991) Textural anatomy of twelve magma-mixed granitoid systems: Enclaves and Granite Petrology. In: Didier, J. and Barbarin, B., Eds., Developments in Petrology, 13, 431-444.

[48]   Machado, A., Lima, E.F., Chemale, F.J., et al. (2005) Geochemistry Constraints of Mesozoic-Cenozoic Calc- Alkaline Magmatism in the South Shetland Arc, Antarctica. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 18, 407- 425. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2004.11.011

[49]   Chappell, B.W. and Stephens, W.E. (1988) Origin of infra crustal (I-type) granite magmas. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Earth sciences, 79, 71-86.

[50]   Ekici, T., Alpaslan, M., Parlak, O. and Temel, A. (2007) Geochemistry of the pliocene basalts erupted along the Malatya-Ovacik fault zone (MOFZ), Eastern Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for source characteristics and partial melting processes. Chemie der Erde Geochemistry, 67, 201-212. doi:10.1016/j.chemer.2006.01.007

[51]   Pearce, J.A. (1982) Trace element characteristics of lavas from destructive plate boundaries: Andesites, Orogenic Andesites and Related Rocks. In: Thorpe, R.S, Ed., Wiley, Chichester, pp. 525-548.

[52]   Alpaslan, M., Y?lmaz, H. and Temel, A. (2004) Geochemistry of post-collision Pliocene-Quaternary Karasar basalt (Divri?i-Sivas, esatern Turkey): Evidence for partial melting processes. Geologica Carpathica, 55, 487-500.

[53]   Pearce, J.A., Bender, J.F., De Long, S.E., et al. (1990) Genesis of collision volcanism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 44, 189-229. doi:10.1016/0377-0273(90)90018-B

[54]   Jahn, B.M., Wu, F., Lo, C.H. and Tsai, C.H. (1999) Crust-mantle interaction induced by deep subduction of the continental crust: geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from post-collisional mafic-ultramafic intrusions of the northern Dabie complex, central China. Chemical Geology, 157, 119-146. doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(98)00197-1

[55]   Carlson, R.W. and Hart, W.K. (1988) Flood basalt volcanism in the Pacific North-western United States: Continental flood basalts. 35-62.

[56]   De Paolo, D.J. (1981) Trace element and isotopic effects of combined wall rock assimilation and fractional crystallization. Earth and Planet Science Letters, 53, 189-202. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(81)90153-9

[57]   Stern, R.J. (2002) Subduction zones. Reviews of Geophysics, 40, 1012. doi:10.1029/2001RG000108

[58]   Fitton, J.G., James, D. and Leeman, W.P. (1991) Basic magmatism associated with Late Cenozoic extension in the western United States: Compositional variation in space and time: The temporal and spatial association of magmatism and metamorphic core complexes. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96, 693-711. doi:10.1029/91JB00372

[59]   Kelemen, P.B., Johnson, K.T.M., Kinzler, R.J. and Irving, A.J. (1990) High-field-strength element depletions in arc basalts due to mantle-magma interaction. Nature, 345, 521-524. doi:10.1038/345521a0

[60]   Villemant, B., Jaffrezic, H., Joron, J.L., et al. (1981) Distribution coefficients of major and trace elements: fractional crystallization in the alkalibasalt series of Chaine du puy (Massif Central, France). Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 45, 1997-2016. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(81)90055-7

[61]   Perin?ek, D. (1979) The geology of Hazro-Koruda?- ?üngü?-Maden-Ergani-Hazar-Elaz??-Malatya area. Tür- kiye Jeoloji Kurumu Yay?n?, 33.

[62]   Pearce, J.A., Harris, N.B.W. and Tindle, A.G.W. (1984) Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. Journal of Petrology, 25, 956-983.

[63]   Yal?n?z, K.M., Ayd?n, N.S., G?ncüo?lu, M.C. and Parlak, O. (2000) Terlemez quartz monzonite of the central Anatolia (Aksaray-Sarikaraman): Age, petrogenesis and geotectonic implications for ophiolite emplacement. Geological Journal, 34, 233-242.

[64]   Robertson, A.H.F. (2006) Field-based evidence from the south Mediterranean region (Crete, Peloponnese, Evia, Sicily) used to test alternative models for the regional tectonic setting of Tethys during late Palaeozoic-early Mesozoic time: Tectonic development of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In: Robertson, A.H.F. and Mountrakis, S., Eds., Geological Society, Special Publication, 210, 91-154.

[65]   Parlak, O., H?ck, V., Kozlu, H. and Delaloye, M. (2004) Oceanic crust generation in an island arc tectonic setting, SE Anatolian Orogenic Belt (Turkey). Geological Magazine, 141, 583-603. doi:10.1017/S0016756804009458

[66]   Pearce, J.A. (1983) Role of the subcontinental lithosphere in magma genesis at continental margins: Continental Basalts and Mantle Xenoliths. In: Hawkesworth, C.J. and Norry, M.J., Eds., Shiva Publishing, Cheshire, 230-249.