AiM  Vol.7 No.5 , May 2017
Effect of Lactate and Starter Inoculum on Biogas Production from Fresh Maize and Maize Silage
Abstract: Lactate is a key intermediate during anaerobic digestion of carbohydrates; however, it fails to receive significant consideration in biogas plants. We examined the influence of lactic acid on biogas production. Two commonly used feeds, fresh maize and maize silage, were selected as substrates due to their difference in lactic acid contents. Additionally, inocula from an agriculture-based biogas plant, a waste water treatment plant and a standardised laboratory reactor were selected to investigate the impact of starter culture on the process. Experiments demonstrated increased total biogas yield of up to 45% in the lactate-rich maize silage over the lactate-devoid fresh maize, but only in cases where the starting inocula had been previously exposed to lactic acid. Our findings suggest lactic acid is a significant intermediate in biogas production and merits consideration. Additionally, the ability of the starter inoculum to utilize lactic acid is an important factor in process optimization and enhanced biogas production.
Cite this paper: Satpathy, P. , Steinigeweg, S. , Siefert, E. and Cypionka, H. (2017) Effect of Lactate and Starter Inoculum on Biogas Production from Fresh Maize and Maize Silage. Advances in Microbiology, 7, 358-376. doi: 10.4236/aim.2017.75030.

[1]   Soares, E.V. and Soares, H.M. (2012) Bioremediation of Industrial Effluents Containing Heavy Metals Using Brewing Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a Green Technology: A Review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 19, 1066-1083.

[2]   Boe, K. (2006) Online Monitoring and Control of the Biogas Process. Ph.D. Dissertation, Institute of Environment & Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen.

[3]   Wieland, P. (2010) Biogas Production: Current States and Perspectives. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 85, 849-860.

[4]   Angelidaki, I., Madalena, A., Bolzonella, D., Borzacconi, L., Campos, L., et al. (2006) Anaerobic Biodegradation, Activity and Inhibition (ABAI). Task Group Meeting, 9-10 October 2006, Prague, Institute of Environmental & Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs., Lyngby.

[5]   Biernacki, P., Steinigeweg, S., Borchert, A. and Uhlenhut, F. (2013) Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for Describing Anaerobic Digestion of Grass, Maize, Green Weed Silage, and Industrial Glycerine. Bioresource Technology, 127, 188-194.

[6]   Batstone, D. and Keller, J. (2003) Industrial Applications of the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). Water Science and Technology, 47, 199-206.

[7]   Sträuber, H., Schröder, M. and Kleinsteuber, S. (2012) Metabolic and Microbial Community Dynamics during the Hydrolytic and Acidogenic Fermentation in a Leach-Bed Process. Energy Sustainability and Society, 2, 13.

[8]   Jo, J.H., Jeon, C.O., Lee, D.S. and Park, J.M. (2007) Process Stability and Microbial Community Structure in Anaerobic Hydrogen-Producing Microflora from Food Waste Containing Kimchi. Journal of Biotechnology, 131, 300-308.

[9]   Mruzek, M. and Groda, B. (2011) Analysis of Biogas Production from Grass Silage, Depending on Its Quality. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 59, 239-246.

[10]   Vourch, M., Balannec, B., Chaufer, B. and Dorange, G. (2005) Treatment of Dairy Industry Wastewater by Reverse Osmosis for Water Reuse. Desalination, 219, 190-202.

[11]   Soubes, M., Mux, L., Zunino, L. and Fernandez, A. (1989) Microbial Degradation of Lactate under Methanogenic Conditions. MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 5, 193-198.

[12]   Skiadas, I.V., Gavala, H.V. and Lyberatos, G. (2000) Modelling of the Periodic Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (PABR) Based on the Retaining Factor Concept. Water Research, 34, 3275-3736.

[13]   Romli, M., Keller, J., Lee, P.J. and Greenfield, P.F. (1995) Modelling and Verification of a Two-Stage High-Rate Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment System Subjected to Shock Loads. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 73, 151-154.

[14]   Thamsiriroj, T., Nizami, A.S. and Murphy, J.D. (2012) Why Does Mono-Digestion of Grass Silage Fail in Long Term Operation? Applied Energy, 95, 64-76.

[15]   Zhang, B., Cai, W.M and He, P.J. (2006) Influence of Lactic Acid on the Two-Phase Anaerobic Digestion of Kitchen Wastes. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19, 244-249.

[16]   Vervaeren, H., Hostyn, K., Ghekiere, G. and Willems, B. (2010) Biological Ensilage Additives as Pretreatment for Maize to Increase the Biogas Product. Renewable Energy, 35, 2089-2093.

[17]   Haresign, W. and Cole, D.J.A. (1988) Meeting the Requirement of Beef Cattle in Forage Based Systems of Production. In: Recent Developments in Ruminant Nutrition, Butterwords, London, 352-353.

[18]   Elferink, O., Krooneman, J., Gottschal, J.C., Spoelstra, S.F., Faber, F. and Driehuis, F. (2001) Anaerobic Conversion of Lactic Acid to Acetic Acid and 1,2-Propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 67, 125-132.

[19]   Hao, L., Lü, F., He, P., Li, L. and Shao, L. (2011) Predominant Contribution of Syntrophic Acetate Oxidation to Thermophilic Methane Formation at High Acetate Concentrations. Environmental Science and Technology, 45, 508-513.

[20]   Rojas, C., Fang, S., Uhlenhut, F., Stein, I., Borchert, A. and Schlaak, M. (2010) Stirring and Biomass Starter Influences the Anaerobic Digestion of Different Substrates for Biogas Production. Engineering in Life Sciences, 10, 339-347.

[21]   Karakashev, D., Batstone, D.J. and Angelidaki, I. (2005) Influence of Environmental Conditions on Methanogenic Compositions in Anaerobic Biogas Reactors. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 71, 331-338.

[22]   Hobson, P.N. and Wheatley, A.D. (1993) Anaerobic Digestion, Modern Theory and Practice. Elsevier Science Publishers, Ltd., Essex, UK.

[23]   Demirel, B. and Scherer, P. (2008) The Roles of Acetotrophic and Hydrogenotrophic Methanogens during Anaerobic Conversion of Biomass to Methane: A Review. Reviews on Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 7, 173-190.

[24]   Lopes, W.S., Leite, V.D. and Prasad, S. (2004) Influence of Inoculum on Performance of Anaerobic Reactors for Treating Municipal Solid Waste. Bioresource Technology, 94, 261-266.

[25]   EWE Biogas GmbH & Co. KG. Wittmund Biogas Power Plant: Important Data at a Glance.

[26]   Papenburg Waste Water Treatment Plant.

[27]   Angelidaki, I. and Sanders, W. (2004) Assessment of the Anaerobic Biodegradability of Macropollutants. Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 3, 117-129.

[28]   Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI) (2006) Fermentation of Organic Material. Characterization of the Substrate, Sampling, Collection of Material Data, Fermentation Tests. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, Düsseldorf.

[29]   Amon, T., Amon, B., Kryvoruchko, V., Zollitsch, W., Mayer, K. and Gruber, L. (2007) Biogas Production from Maize and Dairy Cattle Manure—Influence of Biomass Composition on the Methane Yield. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment, 118, 173-182.

[30]   Dash, A. (2010) Efficiency Study of Two Wetland Treatment Systems at Bhubaneswar, India. The Bioscan, 3, 701-711.

[31]   Haydersah, J., Chevallier, I., Rochette, I., Mouquet-Rivier, C., Picq, C., et al. (2012) Fermentation by Amylolytic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Consequences for Starch Digestibility of Plantain, Breadfruit, and Sweet Potato Flours. Journal of Food Science, 77, M466-M472.

[32]   Hofvendahl, K., Aêkerberg, C., Zacchi, G.B. and Haègerdal, H. (1999) Simultaneous Enzymatic Wheat Starch Saccharification and Fermentation to Lactic Acid by Lactococcus lactis. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 52, 163-169.

[33]   Satpathy, P., Steinigeweg, S., Cypionka, H. and Engelen, B. (2016) Different Substrates and Starter Inocula Govern Microbial Community Structures in Biogas Reactors. Environmental Technology, 37, 1441-1450.

[34]   Herrmann, C., Heiermann, M. and Idler, C. (2011) Effects of Ensiling, Silage Additives and Storage Period on Methane Formation of Biogas Crops. Bioresource Technology, 102, 5153-5161.

[35]   Menardo, S., Balsari, P., Tabacco, E. and Borreani, G. (2015) Effect of Conservation Time and the Addition of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Biogas and Methane Production of Corn Stalk Silage. Bioenergy Research, 8, 1810-1823.

[36]   McEniry, J., Allen, E., Murphy, J.D. and O’Kiely, P. (2014) Grass for Biogas Production: The Impact of Silage Fermentation Characteristics on Methane Yield in Two Contrasting Biomethane Potential Test Systems. Renewable Energy, 63, 524-530.

[37]   Dearman, B., Marschner, P. and Bentham, R.H. (2006) Methane Production and Microbial Community Structure in Single-Stage Batch and Sequential Batch Systems Anaerobically Co-Digesting Food Waste and Biosolids. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 69, 589-596.

[38]   Stroot, P.G., McMahon, K.D., Mackie, R.I. and Raskin, L. (2001) Anaerobic Codigestion of Municipal Solid Waste and Biosolids under Various Mixing Conditions —I. Digester Performance. Water Research, 35, 1804-1816.

[39]   Batstone, D.J., Keller, J., Angelidaki, I., Kalyuzhnyi, S.V., Pavlostathis, S.G., et al. (2002) Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1. International Water Association, London.

[40]   Kreuger, E., Nges, A.I. and Björnsson, L. (2011) Ensiling of Crops for Biogas Production: Effects on Methane Yield and Total Solids Determination. Biotechnology and Biofuels, 4, 6-8.

[41]   Zubr, J. (1986) Methanogenic Fermentation of Fresh and Ensiled Plant Materials. Biomass, 111, 159-171.

[42]   Hutňan, M., Spalková, V., Bodík, I., Kolesárová, N. and Lazor, M. (2010) Biogas Production from Maize Grains and Maize Silage. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 19, 323-329.

[43]   Fang, H.H.P. and Yu, H.Q. (2002) Mesophilic Acidification of Gelatinaceous Wastewater. Journal of Biotechnology, 93, 99-108.