Back
 AJCC  Vol.6 No.2 , June 2017
Households Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Variability Induced Water Stress on Downstream Kaduna River Basin
Abstract: Water stress is one of the risks emanating from worsening climatic variations. It poses serious threats on vulnerable continents, people and livelihoods globally. However, little information is available on how the specific climate threat is impacting people’s livelihoods and water resources on different temporal and spatial scales in Nigeria basins. This study aimed at investigating household vulnerability and adaptation to water stress induced by climate variability on a downstream Kaduna River basin with the goal of supporting/facilitating climate change adaptation. The research analyzed hydro-climatic data and employed vulnerability-based framework consistent with stakeholders’ participatory approach, within the context of current climate conditions experienced, and/or water stress conditions already affecting household livelihoods in six communities at three study sites; Shiroro, Gbako and Lavun, and adaptive strategies engaged to deal with water stress. Findings revealed that households have been exposed and experienced changes in water availability through variations in rainfall, temperature and runoff. Consequently, these changes have impacted on food production and livelihoods. Households have individually and collectively employed adaptation techniques which are reactive, short-term indigenous coping strategies usually adopted during periods of stress to minimize water-related vulnerabilities. The study demonstrated how an understanding of the local household vulnerabilities will enable the recognition of early indicators of water stress in addition to the occurrence of extreme events. Overall, households’ vulnerability decreased from one village to another due to differences in sensitivity to stress, access to resources and local institutional capacity. Resilience of households can be increased through early warning system during flood events, providing access to water from rainwater harvesting techniques, and integration of climate change adaptation into policies regarding development initiatives especially in the area of agriculture.
Cite this paper: Chinwendu, O. , Sadiku, S. , Okhimamhe, A. and Eichie, J. (2017) Households Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Variability Induced Water Stress on Downstream Kaduna River Basin. American Journal of Climate Change, 6, 247-267. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2017.62013.
References

[1]   IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Houghton, J.T., Ding, Y., Nogua, M., Griggs, D., Vander Linden, P. and Maskell, K., Eds., Cambridge University, Press, Cambridge.

[2]   Vorosmarty, C.J., Green, P.A., Douglas, E.M. and Revenga, C. (2005) Geospatial Indicators of Emerging Water Stress: An Application to Africa. Ambio, 34, 230-236.
https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-34.3.230

[3]   Praskievicz, S. and Chang, H. (2009) A Review of Hydrological Modelling of Basin-Scale Climate Change and Urban Development Impacts. Progress in Physical Geography, 33, 650-671.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133309348098

[4]   Allexandrov, V. and Genev, M. (2003) Climate Variability and Change Impact on Water Resources in Bulgaria. European Water, 25-30, 2003.

[5]   Oki, T., Agata, Y., Kanae, S., Saruhashi, T., Yang, D. and Musiake, K. (2001) Global Assessment of Current Water Resources Using Total Runoff Integrating Pathways. Hydrology Science Journal, 46, 983-996.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02626660109492890

[6]   Arnell, N.W., Livermore, M.J.L., Kovats, S., Levy, P.E., Nicholls, R., Parry, M.L. and Gaffin, S.R. (2004) Climate and Socio-Economic Scenarios for Global-Scale Climate Change Impacts Assessments: Characterizing the SRES Storylines. Global Environmental Change, 14, 3-20.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2003.10.004

[7]   Bates, B.C., Kundzewicz, Z.W., Wu, S. and Palutikof, J.P., Eds. (2008) Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, 210 p.

[8]   Ekpoh, I.J. and Nsa, E. (2011) Extreme Climatic Variability in North-Western Nigeria: An Analysis of Rainfall Trends and Patterns. Journal of Geography and Geology, 3, 51-62.

[9]   Adelalu, T.G. (2012) Climate Variability and River Benue Discharge in Jimeta, Yola Area, Nigeria. Hydrology for Disaster Management, Special Publication of the Nigerian Association of Hydrological Sciences.

[10]   Lienou, G. (2013) Integrated Future Needs and Climate Change on the River Niger Water Availability. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 5, 887-893.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2013.59090

[11]   Haruna, G., Abubakar, I. and Tsoho, U. (2013) Fitting Probability Distribution Functions to Discharge Variability of Kaduna River. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, 3, 2848-2852.

[12]   Folorunsho, J.O., Iguisi, E.O., Mu’azu, M.B. and Garba, S. (2012) Application of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (Anfis) in River Kaduna Runoff Forecasting. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 4, 4275-4283.

[13]   Deressa, T., Hassan, R.M. and Ringler, C. (2008) Measuring Vulnerability of Ethiopian Farmers to Climate Change across Regional States. IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 806, IFPRI, Washington DC.

[14]   Birk, T. (2014) Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change and Socioeconomic Stressors in the Reef Islands Group, Solomon Islands. Journal of Geography, 114, 59-75.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00167223.2013.878228

[15]   Eakin, H. and Luers, A.L. (2006) Assessing the Vulnerability of Social Environmental Systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 31, 365-394.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.30.050504.144352

[16]   Smit, B. and Pilifosova, O. (2001) Adaptation to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Development and Equity, in Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Chapter 18. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[17]   Hahn, M.B., Riederer, A.M. and Foster, S.O. (2009) The Livelihood Vulnerability Index: A Pragmatic Approach to Assessing Risks from Climate Variability and Change—A Case Study in Mozambique. Global Environmental Change, 19, 74-88.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.11.002

[18]   Antwi-Agyei, P., Dougill, A.J., Fraser, E.D.G. and Stringer, L.C. (2012) Characterizing the Nature of Vulnerability to Climate Variability: Empirical Evidence from Two Regions of Ghana. Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Working Paper No. 105, Sustainability Research Institute Paper No. 37.

[19]   Vincent, K. (2004) Creating an Index of Social Vulnerability to Climate Change for Africa. Working Paper 56, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Anglia.

[20]   Schroter, D., Polsky, C. and Patt, A. (2005) Assessing Vulnerabilities to the Effects of Global Change: An Eight Step Approach. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 10, 573-595.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-005-6135-9

[21]   ICIMOD (2011) Framework for Community-Based Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment in Mountain Areas. ICIMOD, Kathmandu.

[22]   Pandey, R. and Jha, S.K. (2012) Climate Vulnerability Index—Measure of Climate Change Vulnerability to Communities: A Case of Rural Lower Himalaya, India. Mitigation and Adaption Strategies, Global Change, 17, 487-506.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-011-9338-2

[23]   Huq, S. (2007) Community-Based Adaptation: An IIED Briefing. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

[24]   Gentle, P. and Maraseni, T.N. (2012) Climate Change, Poverty and Livelihoods: Adaptation Practices by Rural Mountain Communities in Nepal. Environmental Science and Policy, 21, 24-34.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2012.03.007

[25]   Gain, A.K., Giupponi, C. and Renaud, F.G. (2012) Climate Change Adaptation and Vulnerability Assessment of Water Resources Systems in Developing Countries: A Generalized Framework and a Feasibility Study in Bangladesh. Water, 4, 345-366.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w4020345

[26]   Oginni and Adebamowo (2013) An Evaluation of the Socio-Cultural Effects of Climate Change on Vulnerable Africa: Making A Case for Urgent Action towards Adaptation in Nigeria. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 11, 259-267.

[27]   Smith, B., Burton, I., Klein, R.J.T. and Wandel, J. (2000) An Anatomy of Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability. Climatic Change, 45, 223-251.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005661622966

[28]   Folorunsho, J.O. (2004) An Examination of Some Stream Flow Characteristics of River Kaduna State. M.Sc. Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

[29]   Nkeki, F.N., Henah, P.J. and Ojeh, V.N. (2013) Geospatial Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood Risk along the Niger-Benue Basin in Nigeria. Journal of Geographic Information System, 5, 123-135.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jgis.2013.52013

[30]   Suleiman, Y.M. and Ifabiyi, I. (2014) The Role of Rainfall Variability in Reservoir Storage Management at Shiroro. International Journal of Science and Technology, 7, 55-63.

[31]   Abdul-Gafar, A., Xu, S. and Yu, W. (2016) Perceptions of Rice Farmers towards Production Constraints: Case Study of Niger State of Nigeria and Hainan of China. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 5, 20-30.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jacen.2016.51B004

[32]   Turner, B.L., Kasperson, R.E., Matson, P.A., McCarthy, J.J., Corell, R.W., Christensen, L., Eckley, N., Kasperson, J.X., Luers, A., Martello, M.L., Polsky, C., Pulsipher, A. and Schiller, A. (2003) A Framework for Vulnerability Analysis in Sustainability Science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 8074-8079.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1231335100

[33]   Adger, W.N. (2003) Social Capital, Collective Action and Adaptation to Climate Change. Economic Geography, 79, 387-404.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-8287.2003.tb00220.x

[34]   Vorosmarty, C.J., Green, P., Salisbury, J. and Lammers, R.B. (2000) Vulnerability from Climate Change and Population Growth. Science, 289, 284-288.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.289.5477.284

[35]   Kelly, P.M. and Adger, W.N. (2000) Theory and practice in Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change and Facilitating Adaptation. Climatic Change, 47, 325-352.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005627828199

[36]   Omonijo, T.O. and Okogbue, E.C. (2014) Trend Analysis of Drought in the Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Climatic Zones of Northern. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 483-507.
https://doi.org/10.4236/acs.2014.44045

[37]   Eze, J.N. (2006) Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Variability and Extremes: A Case Study of Flooding in Niger State, Nigeria. M.Sc. Thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

[38]   Adakayi, P.E. (2012) An Assessment of the Rainfall and Temperature Variations in parts of Northern Nigeria. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Jos, Nigeria.

[39]   Salarijazi, M., Ali-Mohammad, A.A., Adib, A. and Daneshkhah, A. (2012) Trend and Change-Point Detection for the Annual Stream-Flow Series of the Karun River at the Ahvaz Hydrometric Station. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7, 4540-4552.
https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR12.650

[40]   Okafor, G.C., Jimoh, O.D. and Larbi, K.I. (2017) Detecting Changes in Hydro-Climatic Variables during the Last Four Decades (1975-2014) on Downstream Kaduna River Catchment, Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 7, 161-175.
https://doi.org/10.4236/acs.2017.72012

[41]   Ikehi, M.E., Onu, F.M., Ifeanyieze, F.O. and Paradang, P.S. (2014) Farming Families and Climate Change Issues in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Extent of Impact and Adaptation Strategies, Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1140-1151.
https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2014.512124

[42]   Cervigni, R., Valentini, R. and Santini, M. (2013) Toward Climate-Resilient Development in Nigeria. Directions in Development. World Bank, Washington DC.

[43]   Oyerinde, G.T., Hountondji, F.C.C., Wisser, D., Diekkruger, B., Lawin, A.E., Odofin, A.J. and Afouda, A. (2015) Hydro-Climatic Changes in the Niger Basin and Consistency of Local Perceptions. Regional Environmental Change, 15, 1627-1637.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-014-0716-7

[44]   Adebayo, A.A., Onu, J.I., Adebayo, E.F. and Anyanwu, S.O. (2012) Farmers’ Awareness, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Arts and Social Sciences, 9, No. II.

[45]   Mwakalila, S. (2011) Vulnerability of People’s Livelihoods to Water Resources Availability in Semi-Arid Areas of Tanzania. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 3, 678-685.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2011.39078

[46]   Zhou, Y. (2013) Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in North China: The Water Sector in Tianjin. Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg, Germany.

[47]   Ishaku, H.T., Majid, M.R., Ajayi, A.A. and Haruna, A. (2011) Water Supply Dilemma in Nigerian Rural Communities: Looking towards the Sky for an Answer. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 3, 598-606.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2011.38069

[48]   Ishaku, H.T. and Majid, M.R. (2010) X-Raying Rainfall Pattern and Variability in Northeastern Nigeria: Impacts on Access to Water Supply. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2, 952-959.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2010.211113

[49]   Sokoto, M.B. and Muhammad, A. (2014) Response of Rice Varieties to Water Stress in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2, 68-74.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jbm.2014.21008

[50]   Wiltshire, A., Gornall, J., Booth, B., Dennis, E., Falloon, P., Kay, G. and Betts, R. (2013) The Importance of Population, Climate Change and CO2 Plant Physiological Forcing in Determining Future Global Water Stress. Global Environmental Change, 23, 1083-1097.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.06.005

[51]   Ojo, O., Oni, F. and Ogunkunle, O. (2003) Implications of Climatic Variability and Climate Change on Water Resources Availability and Water Resources Management in West Africa. Water Resources Systems, Water Availability and Global Change, Proceedings of Symposium 1IS02, Sapporo, July 2003, IAHS Publication No. 280, 2003.

[52]   Ellis, F. and Allison, E. (2004) Livelihood Diversification and Natural Resource Access. FAO, Livelihood Support Programme (LSP), Working Paper 9. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/006/AD689E/AD689E00.pdf

[53]   Ford, J.D., Smit, B. and Wandel, J. (2006) Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Arctic: A Case Study from Arctic Bay, Canada. Global Environmental Change, 16, 145-160.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2005.11.007

[54]   Paavola, J. (2008) Livelihoods, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Morogoro, CSERGE Working Paper EDM 04-12, Tanzania. Environmental Science and Policy, 11, 642-654.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2008.06.002

[55]   Okeola, O.G., Abdulkareem, K. and Raheem, A. (2016) Prioritization of Water Resources Management Problems in North Central Nigeria Using Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 345-357.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2016.83029

[56]   McCubbin, S., Smit, B. and Pearce, T. (2015) Where Does Climate Fit? Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Context of Multiple Stressors in Funafuti, Tuvalu. Global Environmental Change, 30, 43-55.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.10.007

[57]   Ifeanyieze, F.O., Ikehi, M.E. and Isiwu, E. (2014) Techniques in Utilizing Remote Sensor Technology for Precision Crop Production by Farmers as Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in Nigeria. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1476-1482.
https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2014.514158

[58]   Kelkar, U., Narula, K.K., Sharma, V. and Chandna, U. (2008) Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Variability and Water Stress in Uttarakhand State, India. Global Environmental Change, 18, 564-574.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.09.003

[59]   Obiora, C.J. (2014) Survival Strategies for Climate Change Induced Stress among Women Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 4, 87-90.

 
 
Top