Vorosmarty, C.J., Green, P.A., Douglas, E.M. and Revenga, C. (2005) Geospatial Indicators of Emerging Water Stress: An Application to Africa. Ambio, 34, 230-236.
 Praskievicz, S. and Chang, H. (2009) A Review of Hydrological Modelling of Basin-Scale Climate Change and Urban Development Impacts. Progress in Physical Geography, 33, 650-671.
 Oki, T., Agata, Y., Kanae, S., Saruhashi, T., Yang, D. and Musiake, K. (2001) Global Assessment of Current Water Resources Using Total Runoff Integrating Pathways. Hydrology Science Journal, 46, 983-996.
 Arnell, N.W., Livermore, M.J.L., Kovats, S., Levy, P.E., Nicholls, R., Parry, M.L. and Gaffin, S.R. (2004) Climate and Socio-Economic Scenarios for Global-Scale Climate Change Impacts Assessments: Characterizing the SRES Storylines. Global Environmental Change, 14, 3-20.
 Adelalu, T.G. (2012) Climate Variability and River Benue Discharge in Jimeta, Yola Area, Nigeria. Hydrology for Disaster Management, Special Publication of the Nigerian Association of Hydrological Sciences.
 Haruna, G., Abubakar, I. and Tsoho, U. (2013) Fitting Probability Distribution Functions to Discharge Variability of Kaduna River. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, 3, 2848-2852.
 Folorunsho, J.O., Iguisi, E.O., Mu’azu, M.B. and Garba, S. (2012) Application of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (Anfis) in River Kaduna Runoff Forecasting. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 4, 4275-4283.
 Birk, T. (2014) Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change and Socioeconomic Stressors in the Reef Islands Group, Solomon Islands. Journal of Geography, 114, 59-75.
 Eakin, H. and Luers, A.L. (2006) Assessing the Vulnerability of Social Environmental Systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 31, 365-394.
 Smit, B. and Pilifosova, O. (2001) Adaptation to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Development and Equity, in Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Chapter 18. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
 Hahn, M.B., Riederer, A.M. and Foster, S.O. (2009) The Livelihood Vulnerability Index: A Pragmatic Approach to Assessing Risks from Climate Variability and Change—A Case Study in Mozambique. Global Environmental Change, 19, 74-88.
 Antwi-Agyei, P., Dougill, A.J., Fraser, E.D.G. and Stringer, L.C. (2012) Characterizing the Nature of Vulnerability to Climate Variability: Empirical Evidence from Two Regions of Ghana. Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Working Paper No. 105, Sustainability Research Institute Paper No. 37.
 Vincent, K. (2004) Creating an Index of Social Vulnerability to Climate Change for Africa. Working Paper 56, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Anglia.
 Schroter, D., Polsky, C. and Patt, A. (2005) Assessing Vulnerabilities to the Effects of Global Change: An Eight Step Approach. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 10, 573-595.
 Pandey, R. and Jha, S.K. (2012) Climate Vulnerability Index—Measure of Climate Change Vulnerability to Communities: A Case of Rural Lower Himalaya, India. Mitigation and Adaption Strategies, Global Change, 17, 487-506.
 Gentle, P. and Maraseni, T.N. (2012) Climate Change, Poverty and Livelihoods: Adaptation Practices by Rural Mountain Communities in Nepal. Environmental Science and Policy, 21, 24-34.
 Gain, A.K., Giupponi, C. and Renaud, F.G. (2012) Climate Change Adaptation and Vulnerability Assessment of Water Resources Systems in Developing Countries: A Generalized Framework and a Feasibility Study in Bangladesh. Water, 4, 345-366.
 Oginni and Adebamowo (2013) An Evaluation of the Socio-Cultural Effects of Climate Change on Vulnerable Africa: Making A Case for Urgent Action towards Adaptation in Nigeria. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 11, 259-267.
 Nkeki, F.N., Henah, P.J. and Ojeh, V.N. (2013) Geospatial Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood Risk along the Niger-Benue Basin in Nigeria. Journal of Geographic Information System, 5, 123-135.
 Abdul-Gafar, A., Xu, S. and Yu, W. (2016) Perceptions of Rice Farmers towards Production Constraints: Case Study of Niger State of Nigeria and Hainan of China. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 5, 20-30.
 Turner, B.L., Kasperson, R.E., Matson, P.A., McCarthy, J.J., Corell, R.W., Christensen, L., Eckley, N., Kasperson, J.X., Luers, A., Martello, M.L., Polsky, C., Pulsipher, A. and Schiller, A. (2003) A Framework for Vulnerability Analysis in Sustainability Science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 8074-8079.
 Kelly, P.M. and Adger, W.N. (2000) Theory and practice in Assessing Vulnerability to Climate Change and Facilitating Adaptation. Climatic Change, 47, 325-352.
 Omonijo, T.O. and Okogbue, E.C. (2014) Trend Analysis of Drought in the Guinea and Sudano-Sahelian Climatic Zones of Northern. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 483-507.
 Salarijazi, M., Ali-Mohammad, A.A., Adib, A. and Daneshkhah, A. (2012) Trend and Change-Point Detection for the Annual Stream-Flow Series of the Karun River at the Ahvaz Hydrometric Station. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7, 4540-4552.
 Okafor, G.C., Jimoh, O.D. and Larbi, K.I. (2017) Detecting Changes in Hydro-Climatic Variables during the Last Four Decades (1975-2014) on Downstream Kaduna River Catchment, Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 7, 161-175.
 Ikehi, M.E., Onu, F.M., Ifeanyieze, F.O. and Paradang, P.S. (2014) Farming Families and Climate Change Issues in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Extent of Impact and Adaptation Strategies, Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1140-1151.
 Oyerinde, G.T., Hountondji, F.C.C., Wisser, D., Diekkruger, B., Lawin, A.E., Odofin, A.J. and Afouda, A. (2015) Hydro-Climatic Changes in the Niger Basin and Consistency of Local Perceptions. Regional Environmental Change, 15, 1627-1637.
 Adebayo, A.A., Onu, J.I., Adebayo, E.F. and Anyanwu, S.O. (2012) Farmers’ Awareness, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Arts and Social Sciences, 9, No. II.
 Mwakalila, S. (2011) Vulnerability of People’s Livelihoods to Water Resources Availability in Semi-Arid Areas of Tanzania. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 3, 678-685.
 Zhou, Y. (2013) Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in North China: The Water Sector in Tianjin. Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg, Germany.
 Ishaku, H.T., Majid, M.R., Ajayi, A.A. and Haruna, A. (2011) Water Supply Dilemma in Nigerian Rural Communities: Looking towards the Sky for an Answer. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 3, 598-606.
 Ishaku, H.T. and Majid, M.R. (2010) X-Raying Rainfall Pattern and Variability in Northeastern Nigeria: Impacts on Access to Water Supply. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2, 952-959.
 Sokoto, M.B. and Muhammad, A. (2014) Response of Rice Varieties to Water Stress in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2, 68-74.
 Wiltshire, A., Gornall, J., Booth, B., Dennis, E., Falloon, P., Kay, G. and Betts, R. (2013) The Importance of Population, Climate Change and CO2 Plant Physiological Forcing in Determining Future Global Water Stress. Global Environmental Change, 23, 1083-1097.
 Ojo, O., Oni, F. and Ogunkunle, O. (2003) Implications of Climatic Variability and Climate Change on Water Resources Availability and Water Resources Management in West Africa. Water Resources Systems, Water Availability and Global Change, Proceedings of Symposium 1IS02, Sapporo, July 2003, IAHS Publication No. 280, 2003.
 Ellis, F. and Allison, E. (2004) Livelihood Diversification and Natural Resource Access. FAO, Livelihood Support Programme (LSP), Working Paper 9. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/006/AD689E/AD689E00.pdf
 Ford, J.D., Smit, B. and Wandel, J. (2006) Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Arctic: A Case Study from Arctic Bay, Canada. Global Environmental Change, 16, 145-160.
 Paavola, J. (2008) Livelihoods, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Morogoro, CSERGE Working Paper EDM 04-12, Tanzania. Environmental Science and Policy, 11, 642-654.
 Okeola, O.G., Abdulkareem, K. and Raheem, A. (2016) Prioritization of Water Resources Management Problems in North Central Nigeria Using Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 345-357.
 McCubbin, S., Smit, B. and Pearce, T. (2015) Where Does Climate Fit? Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Context of Multiple Stressors in Funafuti, Tuvalu. Global Environmental Change, 30, 43-55.
 Ifeanyieze, F.O., Ikehi, M.E. and Isiwu, E. (2014) Techniques in Utilizing Remote Sensor Technology for Precision Crop Production by Farmers as Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in Nigeria. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1476-1482.
 Kelkar, U., Narula, K.K., Sharma, V. and Chandna, U. (2008) Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Variability and Water Stress in Uttarakhand State, India. Global Environmental Change, 18, 564-574.