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 JBM  Vol.5 No.4 , April 2017
The Effects of All-Trans Retinoic Acid on Vasculogenic Mimicry Formation Ability in CD133+ Glioma Stem Cells and Its Mechanisms
Abstract: Objective: to investigate the effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on vasculogenic mimicry formation in glioma stem cells. Methods: U87 stem cells were harvested through a suspension culture assay from the U87 cells, identified by CD133 and nestin, and counted by a flow cytometry. To investigate the VM formation ability of U87 stem cells with the treatment of various concentrations of ATRA, a Matrigel-based tube formation assay was used in the present study in vitro and tube-like structure (typical tube, TT; atypical tube AT) was observed and counted. Then the expressions of VEGF, VEGFR-2 and CD133 were measured throughout real time q-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. The data, presented as the mean ± standard deviation, were analyzed using SPSS software. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare groups and Fisher’s least significant difference tests were performed for subsequent comparisons between groups. P < 0.01 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results: Most of the harvested spheroid cells were positive for nestin and 88.4% were positive forCD133. The CD133+ U87 cells were cultured into tube like structure loaded on the top of Matrigel and the quantity of tubes was decreased under the treatment of ATRA. In addition, the expressions of VEGF, VEGFR-2 and CD133 were significantly reduced under the treatment of ATRA, particularly in the higher concentration groups (20 and 40 μmol, P < 0.01). Conclusions: ATRA may inhibit the establishment of VM differing from stem cells in glioma, and these effects may attribute to the effects of ATRA’s promotion of the differentiation of stem cells and/or down regulation of the expressions of proangiogenic factors VEGF and its receptor VEGFR-2. Thus, the results of the present study indicated a novel idea for the treatment of GBM and enriched the anti-glioma mechanisms of ARTA.
Cite this paper: Tang, R. , Liang, C. , Shangguan, J. and Guo, S. (2017) The Effects of All-Trans Retinoic Acid on Vasculogenic Mimicry Formation Ability in CD133+ Glioma Stem Cells and Its Mechanisms. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 5, 42-54. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2017.54005.
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