Back
 AS  Vol.8 No.4 , April 2017
SWAT Modeling of Nitrogen Dynamics Considering Atmospheric Deposition and Nitrogen Fixation in a Watershed Scale
Abstract: The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) nitrogen (N) water quality model considers the artificial inputs associated with human activities, including point and nonpoint source pollution loads. Although SWAT has the ability to simulate atmospheric N deposition and fixation, they were not considered in the modeling research. N deposition from the air is an important and considerable pathway for the input of N species into watersheds and water bodies, causing soil and water body acidification and the leaching of N into surface and groundwater, resulting in eutrophication and degraded water quality. The goal of this study is to assess the effects of atmospheric and agricultural N loads on stream water quality at the watershed scale. For a 6642 km2 Chungju dam watershed, SWAT was calibrated for 4 years (2003-2006) and validated for another 4 years (2007-2010) using daily anthropogenic N data (sewage discharge pollutants and fertilizer) and monthly measured atmospheric deposition data for NO3ˉ, NH4+, and dissolved organic N (DON). At the watershed outlet, the Nash-Sutcliffe (1970) efficiency (NSE) of daily streamflow during the validation period was 0.74. The coefficient of determination (R2) of total N was 0.69 considering atmospheric deposition, whereas it was 0.33 when removing the deposition effect. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for using the N dynamics between the atmosphere and land for SWAT assessments of nonpoint source pollution and for modeling stream water quality.
Cite this paper: Jung, C. and Kim, S. (2017) SWAT Modeling of Nitrogen Dynamics Considering Atmospheric Deposition and Nitrogen Fixation in a Watershed Scale. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 326-340. doi: 10.4236/as.2017.84024.
References

[1]   Galloway, J.N., Dentener, F.J., Capone, D.G., Boyer, E.W., Howarth, R.W., Seitzinger, S.P., Asner, G.P., Cleveland, C.C., Green, P.A., Holland, E.A., Karl, D.M., Michaels, A.F., Porter, J.H., Townsend, A.R. and VÖosmarty, C.J. (2004) Nitrogen Cycles: Past, Present, and Future. Biogeochemistry, 70, 153-226.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-004-0370-0

[2]   Galloway, J.N., Townsend, A.R., Erisman, J.W., Bekunda, M., Cai, Z., Freney, J.R., Martinelli, L.A., Seitzinger, S.P. and Sutton, M.A. (2008) Transformation of the Nitrogen Cycle: Recent Trends, Questions, and Potential Solutions. Science, 320, 889-892.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1136674

[3]   Smil, V. (1999) Nitrogen in Crop Production: An Account of Global Flows. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 647-662.
https://doi.org/10.1029/1999GB900015

[4]   Galloway, J.N., Aber, J.D., Erisman, J.W., Seitzinger, S.P., Howarth, R.W., Cowling, E.B. and Cosby, B.J. (2003) The Nitrogen Cascade. BioScience, 53, 341-356.

[5]   Howarth, R.W., Sharpley, A. and Walker, D. (2002) Sources of Nutrient Pollution to Coastal Waters in the United States: Implications for Achieving Coastal Water Quality Goals. Estuaries, 25, 656-676.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02804898

[6]   Smith, V.H. (2003) Eutrophication of Freshwater and Coastal Marine Ecosystems: A Global Problem. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 10, 126-139.

[7]   Smith, V.H., Joye, S.B. and Howarth, R.W. (2006) Eutrophication of Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography, 51, 351-355.
https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2006.51.1_part_2.0351

[8]   Smith, V.H. and Schindler, D.W. (2009) Eutrophication Science: Where do We Go from Here? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 24, 201-207.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2008.11.009

[9]   Vonlanthen, P., Bittner, D., Hudson, A.G., Young, K.A., Müller, R., Lundsgaard-Hansen, B., Roy, D., Di Piazza, S., Largiader, C.R. and Seehausen, O. (2012) Eutrophication Causes Speciation Reversal in Whitefish Adaptive Radiations. Nature, 482, 357-362.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10824

[10]   Diaz, R.J. and Rosenberg, R. (2008) Spreading Dead Zones and Consequences for Marine Ecosystems. Science, 321, 926-929.

[11]   Pretty, J.N., Mason, C.F., Nedwell, D.B., Hine, R.E., Leaf, S. and Dils, R. (2003) Environmental Costs of Freshwater Eutrophication in England and Wales. Environmental Science and Technology, 37, 201-208.
https://doi.org/10.1021/es020793k

[12]   National Institute of Environmental Research (2012) The Report on National Water Quality Evaluation 2012. Ministry of Environment, Seoul.

[13]   Jégo, G., Martínez, M., Antigüedad, I., Launay, M., Sanchez-Pérez, J.M. and Justes, E. (2008) Evaluation of the Impact of Various Agricultural Practices on Nitrate Leaching Under the Root Zone of Potato and Sugar Beet Using the STICS Soil-Crop Model. Science of the Total Environment, 394, 207-221.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.01.021

[14]   Pikounis, M. (2003) Application of the SWAT Model in the Pinos River Basin Under Different Land Use Cases. Global Nest Journal, 5, 71-79.

[15]   Cerro, I., Sanchez-Perez, J.M., Ruiz-Romera, E. and Antigüedad, I. (2014) Variability of Particulate (SS, POC) and Dissolved (DOC, NO3) Matter during Storm Events in the Alegria Agricultural Watershed. Hydrological Processes, 28, 2855-2867.

[16]   Borah, D.K. and Bera, M. (2003) Watershed-Scale Hydrologic and Nonpoint-Source Pollution Models: Review of Mathematical Bases. Transactions of the ASAE, 46, 1553-1566.
https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.15644

[17]   Gassman, P.W., Reyes, M.R., Green, C.H. and Arnold, J.G. (2007) The Soil and Water Assessment Tool: Historical Development, Applications, and Future Research Directions. Transactions of the ASABE, 50, 1211-1250.

[18]   Arnold, J.G., Srinivasan, R., Muttiah, R.S. and Williams, J.R. (1998) Large Area Hydrologic Modeling and Assessment Part I: Model Development. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 34, 73-89.

[19]   Neitsch, S.L., Arnold, J.G., Kiniry, J.R. and Williams, J.R. (2001) Soil and Water Assessment Tool Theoretical Documentation Version 2000: Draft-April 2001. Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Temple.

[20]   Williams, J.R. (1975) Sediment Routing for Agricultural Watersheds. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 11, 965-974.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.1975.tb01817.x

[21]   Green, C. and Vangriensven, A. (2008) Autocalibration in Hydrologic Modeling: Using SWAT2005 in Small-Scale Watersheds. Environmental Modelling & Software, 23, 422-434.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2007.06.002

[22]   Neitsch, S.L., Arnold, J.G., Kiniry, J.R., Williams, J.R. and King, K.W. (2002) Soil and Water Assessment Tool: Theoretical Documentation, Version 2000. TWRI Report TR-191. Water Resources Institute, College Station.

[23]   Van Breemen, N., Boyer, E.W., Goodale, C.L., Jaworski, N.A., Paustian, K., Seitzinger, S., Lajtha, L.K., Mayer, B., Van Dam, D., Howarth, R.W., Nadelhoffer, K.J., Eve, M. and Billen, G. (2002) Where Did All the Nitrogen Go? Fate of Nitrogen Inputs to Large Watersheds in the Northeastern USA. Biogeochemistry, 57/58, 267-293.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015775225913

[24]   Nam, Y., An, S. and Park, J. (2011) Nitrogen Budget of South Korea in 2008: Evaluation of Non-Point Source Pollution and N2O Emission. Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers, 33, 103-112.

[25]   Parfitt, R.L., Schipper, L.A., Baisden, W.T. and Elliott, A.H. (2006) Nitrogen Inputs and Outputs for New Zealand in 2001 at National and Regional Scales. Biogeochemistry, 80, 71-88.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-006-0002-y

[26]   Park, J.Y., Park, M.J., Ahn, S.R., Park, G.A., Yi, J.E., Kim, G.S., Srinivasan, R. and Kim, S.J. (2011) Assessment of Future Climate Change Impacts on Water Quantity and Quality for a Mountainous Dam Watershed Using SWAT. Transactions of the ASABE, 54, 1725-1737.

[27]   Nash, J.E. and Sutcliffe, J.V. (1970) River Flow Forecasting Through Conceptual Models Part I—A Discussion of Principles. Journal of Hydrology, 10, 282-290.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(70)90255-6

 
 
Top