JWARP  Vol.9 No.5 , April 2017
Planning for Integrative Management of Wastewater Disposal, Irrigation Water Supply and Fertilizer Use: A Case Study in an Arid Land of China
Abstract: This work is a trans-disciplinary undertaking aiming at innovative water management in arid and semi-arid regions. Based on field studies on soil bacterial communities and irrigation water quality in an arid region of China where wastewater has been used for agricultural production decade long, this paper is intended to propose an integrative management scheme combining wastewater reuse in agriculture, wise use of wetlands and fertilizer management as an engine toward achieving sustainable development in arid and semi-arid regions. This study was also designed to address a key but very much neglected question about wastewater reuse in irrigation: does wastewater irrigation lead to reduction of chemical fertilizer use and increase of crop yield? Through a questionnaire, it revealed that there was a misperception among farmers about wastewater, which led to no-reduction or even increase in fertilizer use with wastewater irrigation as compared with river water irrigation. It also showed that crop yield was not increased with wastewater irrigation under the current practice. Besides, it sheds some light on an underreported health concern.
Cite this paper: Huang, G. (2017) Planning for Integrative Management of Wastewater Disposal, Irrigation Water Supply and Fertilizer Use: A Case Study in an Arid Land of China. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 9, 482-492. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.95031.

[1]   Densai, G.M. (1969) Growth of Fertilizer Use in India Agriculture: Past Trends and Future Demand. Cornell International Agricultural Development Bulletin 18, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

[2]   NCAER (National Council of Applied Economic Research) (1974) Fertilizer Use on Selected Crops in India. NCAER and Fertilizer Association of India.

[3]   Hallberg, G.R. (1987) The Impacts of Agricultural Chemicals on Ground Water Quality. GeoJournal, 15, 283-295.

[4]   Future Harvest (2001) Wastewater Irrigation: Economic Necessity or Threat to Health and Environment? Future Harvest, Washington DC.

[5]   Cooper, R.C. (1991) Public Health Concerns in Wastewater Reuse. Water Science and Technology, 24, 55-65.

[6]   Moscosco, J. (1996) Aquaculture Using Treated Effluents from the San Juan Stabilization Ponds, Lima, Peru. Abstracts of Recycling Waste for Agriculture: The Rural-Urban Connection, The World Bank, Washington DC, 23-24 September 1996.

[7]   Fattal, B., Wax, Y., Davies, M. and Shuval, H.I. (1986) Health Risks Associated with Wastewater Irrigation: An Epidemiological Study. American Journal of Public Health, 76, 977-979.

[8]   WHO (2006) The Third Edition of the WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater. World Health Organization.

[9]   Friedel, J.K., Langer, T., Siebe, C. and Stahr, K. (2000) Effects of Long-Term Wastewater Irrigation on Soil Organic Matter, Soil Microbial Biomass and Its Activities in Central Mexico. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 31, 414-421.

[10]   Madi, A., Braadbaart, O., Al-Sa’ed, R. and Alaerts, G. (2003) Willingness of Farmers to Pay for Reclaimed Wastewater in Jordan and Tunisia. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 3, 115-122.

[11]   Bickers, P.O. and Bhamidimarri, R. (1998) Aerobic Treatment of Reverse Osmosis Permeate in the Dairy Industry for Reuse. Water Science and Technology, 38, 61-67.

[12]   Pereira, B., He, Z., Stoffella, P. and Melfi, A. (2011) Reclaimed Wastewater: Effects on Citrus Nutrition. Agricultural Water Management, 98, 1828-1833.

[13]   Becerra-Castro, C., Lopes, A.R., Vaz-Moreira, I., Silva, E.F., Manaia, C.M. and Nunes, O.C. (2015) Wastewater Reuse in Irrigation: A Microbiological Perspective on Implications in Soil Fertility and Human and Environmental Health. Environment International, 75, 117-135.

[14]   Carr, G., Potter, R.B. and Nortcliff, S. (2011) Water Reuse for Irrigation in Jordan: Perceptions of Water Quality among Farmers. Agricultural Water Management, 98, 847-854.

[15]   Yang, B., Kong, X., Cui, B., Jin, D., Deng, Y., Zhuang, X., Zhuang, G. and Bai, Z. (2015) Impact of Rural Domestic Wastewater Irrigation on the Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Pakchoi and Soil. Water, 7, 1825-1839.

[16]   Singh, P.K., Deshbhratar, P.B. and Ramteke, D.S. (2012) Effects of Sewage Wastewater Irrigation on Soil Properties, Crop Yield and Environment. Agricultural Water Management, 103, 100-104.

[17]   Huang, G. (2015) From Water-Constrained to Water-Driven Sustainable Development—A Case of Water Policy Impact Evaluation. Sustainability, 7, 8950-8964.

[18]   Wang, H. and Ma, M. (2016) Impacts of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities on the Ecological Restoration of Wetlands in the Arid Regions of China. Energies, 9, 166-191.

[19]   Huang, G., Takahashi, S., Liu, H., Saito, T. and Kimura, N. (2016) Characterization of Soil Bacterial Diversity in Relation to Irrigation Water: A Case Study in China. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8, 1090-1102.

[20]   Aciego Pietri, J.C. and Brookes, P.C. (2008) Nitrogen Mineralisation along a pH Gradient of a Silty Loam UK Soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40, 797-802.

[21]   Rousk, J., Baath, E., Brookers, P.C., Lauber, C.L., Lozupone, C., Caporaso, J.G., Knight, R. and Fierer, N. (2010) Soil Bacterial and Fungal Communities across a pH Gradient in an Arable Soil. The ISME Journal, 4, 1340-1351.

[22]   Li, H., Xu, Z., Yang, S., et al. (2016) Responses of Soil Bacterial Communities to Nitrogen Deposition and Precipitation Increment Are Closely Linked with Aboveground Community Variation. Microbial Ecology, 71, 974-989.

[23]   Zhang, J. and Liu, C. (2012) Design of Wetland Landscape along Donghuan Road in Zhangye City and Ecological Effect Analysis. Grassland and Lawn, 3, 34-48. (In Chinese)

[24]   Pedrero, F., Kalavrouziotis, I., Alarcon, J.J., Koukoulakis, P. and Asano, T. (2010) Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater in Irrigated Agriculture—Review of Some Practices in Spain and Greece. Agricultural Water Management, 97, 1233-1241.