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 AiM  Vol.7 No.4 , April 2017
A Retrospective Analysis of Three Non-Invasive Tests for Initial Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children
Abstract: Proper diagnosis in the pediatric population is required to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and prevent gastric cancer. Our aim was to assess the performance of non-invasive tests to diagnose H. pylori infection in pediatric patients. A retrospective analysis was performed on 141 pediatric patients requiring endoscopic evaluation and diagnostic tests for H. pylori infection to define the cause of abdominal symptoms. Non-invasive tests included the 13C-urea breath test (UBT), a monoclonal stool antigen test using enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (mSAT), and a serum immunoglobulin G antibody test using antigens derived from Japanese individuals (S-Ab). This study investigated sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios for a positive and a negative test (LR+ and LR-), and accuracy of non-invasive tests, in comparison with invasive tests. Eighty two of 141 patients (58%) were recognized as H. pylori positive by invasive methods. When UBT, mSAT or S-Ab were analyzed, all were found to be effective over 94% accurate. Specificity ranged between 86.7% and 95.8%, and sensitivity ranged between 93.8% and 97.1%. When subjects were stratified into three distinct age groups, the best performance was achieved for 1-6 years old with mSAT at 100% for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. S-Ab yielded the best results for children 7-12 years old and the UBT test performed best for 13-18 years old. These results demonstrate the utility of UBT, mSAT, and S-Ab non-invasive tests in diagnosing H. pylori but suggest that certain tests may be optimal for children of distinct ages. Three non-invasive tests, UBT, mSAT and S-Ab showed sufficient sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the initial diagnosis of H. pylori infection among pediatric patients. Non-invasive tests may contribute to achieving minimum invasive diagnosis with combining with a histological test and a culture test in children.
Cite this paper: Ikuse, T. , Kudo, T. , Obayashi, N. , Jimbo, K. , Aoyagi, Y. , Ohtsuka, Y. , Blanchard, T. , Czinn, S. and Shimizu, T. (2017) A Retrospective Analysis of Three Non-Invasive Tests for Initial Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children. Advances in Microbiology, 7, 253-264. doi: 10.4236/aim.2017.74021.
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