AJPS  Vol.8 No.5 , April 2017
Allelochemicals as Growth Stimulators for Drought Stressed Maize
Abstract: Sorgaab, an aqueous extract of sorghum leaves was applied to probe the modulation in growth and physiological attributes of maize under drought in lab and greenhouse studies. Sorgaab soaked seeds (10 dilutions) were germinated to assess drought tolerance at germination and seedling growth stages. More concentrated Sorgaab solutions (2 mL·L-1) were damaging, while lower concentration in the range of 0.75 to 1.5 mL·L-1 improved the root and shoot growth of maize under drought. Applied drought stress decreased chlorophyll b greater than chlorophyll a that improved the chl a/b ratio. Application of Sorgaab also improved the internal CO2 assimilation, which increased the net photosynthesis and A/E ratio of drought affected plants. Soluble phenolics and anthocyanins were also more increased in plant receiving Sorgaab under drought than control. Although greater concentrations of phenolic acids inhibit the uptake of ions, but its lower concentrations stimulate the uptake of K+, Ca2+, NO3, PO4. In conclusion, although high concentrations of Sorgaab reduced the growth of plants, it might alleviate the adverse effects of drought, if applied at the low concentration. Dilute concentrations of Sorgaab can be utilized as a natural source for improving drought resistance in maize both at germination and later growth stages.
Cite this paper: Maqbool, N. and Sadiq, R. (2017) Allelochemicals as Growth Stimulators for Drought Stressed Maize. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 8, 985-997. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2017.85065.

[1]   Merkl, R., Hradkova, I., Filip, V. and Smidrka, J. (2010) Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Acids Alkyl Esters. Czech Journal of Food Science, 28, 275-279.

[2]   Lattanzio, V., Lattanzio, V.M.T. and Cardinali, A. (2006) Role of Phenolics in the Resistance Mechanism of Plants against Fungal Pathogen and Insects. Phytochemistry: Advance Research, 23-67.

[3]   Olofsdotter, M., Rebulanan, M., Madrid, A., Dali, W., Navarez, D. and Olk, D.C. (2002) Why Phenolics Acids Are Unlikely Primary Allelochemicals in Rice. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 28, 229-242.

[4]   Guenzi, W.D., McCalla, I.M. and Norstad, F.A. (1967) Presence and Persistence of Phytotoxic Substancedd in Wheat, Oat, Corn and Sorghum Residues. Agronomy Journal, 59, 163-165.

[5]   Einhellig, F.A. and Rasmussen, J.A. (1978) Synergistic Inhibitory Effects of Vanillic and p-Hydrozbenzoic Cids on Radish and Grain Sorghum. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 4, 425-436.

[6]   Cheema, Z.A. (1988) Weed Control in Wheat through Sorghum Allelochemicals. PhD Thesis, Department Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

[7]   Cheema, Z.A., Luqman, M. and Khaliq, A. (1997) Use of Allelopathic Extracts of Sorghum and Sunflower Herbage for Weed Control in Wheat. Journal of Animal Plant Science, 7, 91-93.

[8]   Khaliq, A., Iqbal, M. and Basra, S.M.A. (1999) Optimization of Seeding Density and Nitrogen Application in Wheat cv. Inqalab-91 under Faisalabad Condition. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 1, 241-243.

[9]   Iqbal, J. and Cheema, Z.A. (2008) Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) Management in Cotton with Combined Application of Sorgaab and s-Metolachlor. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40, 2383-2391.

[10]   Rice, E.L. (1984) Allelopathy. Academic Press, New York.

[11]   Wahid, A. and Ghazanfar, A. (2006) Possible Involvement of Some Secondary Metabolites in Salt Tolerance of Sugarcane. Journal of Plant Physiology, 163, 723-730.

[12]   Wahid, A. (2007) Physiological Implications of Metabolite Biosynthesis for Net Assimilation and Heat Stress Tolerance of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Sprouts. Journal of Plant Research, 120, 219-228.

[13]   Anonymous (2005) Pakistan Statistical Yearbook. MINFAL, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.

[14]   Farooq, M., Wahid, A., Kobayashi, N., Fujita, D. and Basra, S.M.A. (2009) Plant Drought Stress: Effects, Mechanisms and Management. Agronomy Sustainable Development, 29, 185-212.

[15]   Khalid, S., Ahmad, T. and Shad, R.A. (2002) Use of Allelopathy in Agriculture. Asian Journal of Plant Science, 1, 292-297.

[16]   Singh, H.P., Batish, D.R. and Kohli, R.K. (2003) Allelopathic Interactions and Allelochemicals: New Possibilities for Sustainable Weed Management. Critical Reviews in Plant Science, 22, 239-311.

[17]   Javaid, A., Shafique, S., Bajwa, R. and Shafique, S. (2006) Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Allelopathic Crops on Germination and Growth of Parthenium hysterophorus L. South African Journal of Botany, 72, 609-612.

[18]   Batish, D.R., Lavanya, K., Singh, H.P. and Kohli, R.K. (2007) Phenolic Allelochemicals Released by Chenopodium murale Affect the Growth, Nodulation and Macromolecule Content in Chickpea and Pea. Plant Growth Regulation, 51, 119-128.

[19]   Ambika, S.R. and Poornima, S. (2006) Allelochemicals from Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson for Increasing Crop Productivity. Allelopathy Journal, 18, 2.

[20]   Fujii, Y. (2003) Allelopathy in the Natural and Agricultural Ecosystems and Isolation of Potent Allelochemicals from Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens) and Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa). Biological Science Space, 17, 6-13.

[21]   Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (2010) Plant Physiology. 5th Edition, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.

[22]   Zavalloni, C., Gielen, B., de Boeck, H.J., Lemmens, C.M., Ceulemans, R. and Nijs, I. (2009) Greater Impact of Extreme Drought on Photosynthesis of Grassland Exposed to Warmer Climate in Spite of Acclimation. Plant Physiology, 136, 57-72.

[23]   Dubey, R.S. (2005) Photosynthesis in Plants under Stress Full Conditions. In: Pessarakli, M., Ed., Photosynthesis, CRC Press, New York, 717-718.

[24]   Cornic, G. (1994) Drought Stress and High Light Effects on Leaf Photosynthesis. In: Baker, N.R. and Boyer, J.R., Eds., Photoinhibition of Photosynthesis: From Molecular Mechanisms to the Field, Bios Scientific Publishers, Oxford, 297-313.

[25]   Cornic, G., Ghashghaie, Genty, B. and Briantais, J.-M. (1992) Leaf Photosynthesis Is Resistant to a Mild Drought Stress. Photosynthetica, 27, 295-300.

[26]   Uddin, M.B., Ahmed, R., Mukul, S.A. and Hossain, M.K. (2007) Inhibitory Effects of Albizia lebbeck Leaf Extracts on Germination and Growth Behavior of Some Popular Agricultural Crops. Journal of Forestry Research, 18, 128-132.

[27]   Lawlor, D.W. (2002) Limitation of Photosynthesis in Water-Stressed Leaves. Stomatal Metabolism and the Role of ATP. Annals of Botany, 89, 871-885.

[28]   Lauer, K.J. and Boyer, J.S. (1992) Internal CO2 Measures Directly in Leaves: Abscisic Acid a Low Leaf Water Potential Cause Opposing Effects. Plant Physiology, 98, 1010-1016.

[29]   Terzi, R., Saglam, A., Kutlu, N., Nar, H. and Kadioglu, A. (2010) Impact of Soil Drought Stress on Photochemical Efficiency of Photosystem II and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Phaseolus vulgaris Cultivars. Turkey Journal of Botany, 34, 1-10.

[30]   Liu, Y., Cao, T. and Glime, J.M. (2003) The Changes of Membrane Permeability of Mosses under High Temperature Stress. The Bryologist, 106, 53-60.[0053:TCOMPO]2.0.CO;2

[31]   Zhi-Min, Y., Shao-Jian, Z., Ai-Tong, H., You-Fei, Z. and Jing-Yi, Y. (2000) Response of Cucumber Plants to Increased UV-B Radiation under Water Stress. Journal of Environmental Science, 12, 236-240.

[32]   Spyropoulos, C.G. and Mavrommatis, M. (1978) Effect of Water Stress on Pigment Formation in Quercus Species. Journal of Experimental Botany, 29, 473-477.

[33]   Arora, A., Sairam, R.K. and Srivastava, G.C. (2002) Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Systems in Plants. Current Science, 82, 1227-1238.

[34]   Navari-Izzo, F., Quartacci, M.F. and Izzo, M.F. (1990) Water Stress Induce Changes in Protein an Fress Amino Acids in Field-Grown Maize and Sunflower. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 28, 531-537.

[35]   Jones, M.M., Osmond, C.B. and Turner, N.C. (1980) Accumulation of Solutes in Leaves of Sorghum and Sunflower in Response to Water Deficit. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 7, 193-205.

[36]   Sankhla, N., Upadhyaya, A., Davis, T.D. and Sankhla, D. (1992) Hydrogen Peroxide-Scavenging Enzymes and Antioxidants in Echinocloa frumentacea as Affected by Triazole Growth Regulators. Plant Growth Regulation, 11, 1573-5087.

[37]   Whitehead, D.C. (1964) Identification of p-Hydroxybenzoic, Vanillic, p-Coumaric, and Ferulic Acids in Soils. Nature, 202, 417-418.

[38]   Yu, J.Q. and Matsui, Y. (1997) Effects of Root Exudates of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Allelochemicals on Ions Uptake by Cucumber Seedlings. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 23, 817 827.

[39]   Abenavoli, M.R., Lupini, A., Oliva, S. and Sorgona, A. (2010) Allelochemicals Effects on Net Nitrate Uptake and Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Activity Ion Maize Seedlings. Biologia Plantarum, 54, 149-153.