H. M. Lakka, D. E. Laaksonen, T. A. Lakka, L. K. Niskanen, E. Kumpusalo and J. Tuomilehto, “The Metabolic Syndrome and Total and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Middle-Aged Men,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 288, No. 21, 2002, pp. 2709- 2716.
 C. J. Girman, T. Rhodes, M. Mercuri, K. Pyorala, J. Kjekshus and T. R. Pedersen, “The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Major Coronary Events in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) and the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/ TexCAPS),” The American Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 93, No. 2, 2004, pp. 136-141. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.09.028
 A. J. Hanley, A. Festa, R. B. D’Agostino, J. L. E. Wagenknecht, P. J. Savage and R. P. Tracy, “Metabolic and Inflammation Variable Clusters and Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes: Factor Analysis Using Directly Measured Insulin Sensitivity,” Diabetes, Vol. 53, No. 7, 2004, pp. 1773-1781.
 Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, “Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III),” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 285, No. 19, 2001, pp. 2486- 2497.
 International Diabetes Federation, “The IDF Consensus Worldwide Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome,” 2009. www.idf.org/webcast/pdf/IDF.
 R. Kahn, J. Buse, E. Ferrannini and M. Stern, “The Metabolic Syndrome: Time for a Critical Appraisal: Joint Statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 28, No. 9, 2005, pp. 2289-2304. doi:10.2337/diacare.28.9.2289
 M. J. Sarnak, A. S. Levey, A. C. Schoolwerth, J. Coresh, B. Culleton and L. L. Hamm, “Kidney Disease as a Risk Factor for Development of Cardiovascular Disease: A Statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention,” Circulation, Vol. 108, 2003, pp. 2154- 2169.
 H. C. Gerstein, J. F. Mann, Q. Yi, B. Zinman, S. F. Din neen and B. Hoogwerf, “Albuminuria and Risk of Cardiovascular Events, Death, and Heart Failure in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Individuals,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 286, No. 4, 2001, pp. 421-426.
 K. Wachtell, H. Ibsen, M. H. Olsen, K. Borch-Johnsen, L. H. Lindholm and C. E. Mogensen, “Albuminuria and Cardiovascular Risk in Hypertensive Patients with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, the LIFE Study,” Annals of In ternal Medicine, Vol. 139, No. 11, 2003, pp. 901-906.
 H. L. Hillege, V. Fidler, G. F. Diercks, W. H. van Gilst, D. de Zeeuw and D. J. van Veldhuisen, “Urinary Albumin Excretion Predicts Cardiovascular and Noncardiovascular Mortality in General Population,” Circulation, Vol. 106, No. 14, 2002, pp. 1777-1782.
 J. Chen, P. Muntner, L. L. Hamm, D. W. Jones, V. Batu man, V. Fonseca and Whelton, “The Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in U.S. Adults,” Ann. Intern. Med., Vol. 140, No. 3, 2004, pp. 167-174.
 L. Palaniappan, M. Carnethon and S. P. Fortmann, “Association between Microalbuminuria and the Metabolic Syndrome: NHANES III,” American Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 16, No. 11, 2003, pp. 952-958. doi:10.1016/S0895-7061(03)01009-4
 M. Kurella, J. C. Lo and G. M. Chertow, “Metabolic Syndrome and the Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease among Nondiabetic Adults,” Journal of the American So- ciety of Nephrology, Vol. 16, No. 7, 2005, pp. 2134-2140. doi:10.1681/ASN.2005010106
 L. Zhang, L. Zuo, F. Wang, M. Wang, S. Wang and L. Liu, “Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in a Chinese Population Aged 40 Years and Older,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Vol. 82, No. 7, 2007, pp. 822-827. doi:10.4065/82.7.822
 T. Ninomiya, Y. Kiyohara, M. Kubo, K. Yonemoto, Y. Tanizaki and Y. Doi, “Metabolic Syndrome and CKD in a General Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 48, No. 3, 2006, pp. 383-391. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2006.06.003
 M. Tozawa, C. Iseki, K. Tokashiki, S. Chinen, K. Kohagura and K. Kinjo, “Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Developing Chronic Kidney Disease in Japanese Adults,” Hypertension Research, Vol. 30, No. 10, 2007, pp. 937- 943. doi:10.1291/hypres.30.937
 C. Kitiyakara, S. Yamwong, S. Cheepudomwit, S. Dom rongkitchaiporn, N. Unkurapinun and V. Pakpeankitvatana, “The Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease In a Southeast Asian Cohort,” Kidney International, Vol. 71, No. 7, 2007, pp. 693-700. doi:10.1038/sj.ki.5002128
 J. E. Lee, S. Y. Choi, W. Huh, Y. G. Kim, D. J. Kim and H. Y. Oh, “Metabolic Syndrome, C-Reactive Protein, and Chronic Kidney Disease in Nondiabetic, Nonhypertensive Adults,” American Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2007, pp. 1189-1194.
 J. Lucove, S. Vupputuri, G. Heiss, K. North and M. Rus sell, “Metabolic Syndrome and the Development of CKD in American Indians: The Strong Heart Study,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2008, pp. 21-28. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.09.014
 J. Chen, P. Muntner, L. L. Hamm, V. Fonseca, V. Batuman and P. K. Whelton, “Insulin Resistance and Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Nondiabetic US Adults,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2003, pp. 469-477. doi:10.1097/01.ASN.0000046029.53933.09
 A. J. Goday, R. Gabriel, J. F. Ascaso and DESIRE Investigators, “Riesgo Cardiovascular en Sujetos con Alta Probabilidad de síNdrome Metabólico y Resistencia a la Insulina. Estudio DESIRE,” Revista Clínica Espa?ola, Vol. 208, No. 8, 2008, pp. 377-385. doi:10.1157/13126339
 S. E. Stern, K. Williams, E. Ferrannini, R. A. DeFronzo, C. Bogardus and M. P. Stern, “Identification of Indivi- duals with Insulin Resistance Using Routine Clinical Measurements,” Diabetes, Vol. 54, No. 2, 2005, pp. 333- 339.
 A. V. Chobanian, G. L. Bakris, H. R. Black, W. C. Cushman, L. A. Green and J. L. Izzo Jr., “The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 Report,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 289, No. 19, 2003, pp. 2560- 2572.
 A. S. Levey, J. Coresh, E. Balk, A. T. Kausz, A. Levin and M. W. Steffes, “National Kidney Foundation Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, Classification, and Stratification,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 139, No. 2, 2003, pp. 137-147.
 T. McLaughlin, F. Abbasi, K. Cheal, J. Chu, C. Lamendola and G. Reaven, “Use of Metabolic Markers to Identify Overweight Individuals Who Are Insulin Resistant,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 139, No. 10, 2003, pp. 802-809.
 Y. Liao, S. Kwon, S. Shaughnessy, P. Wallace, A. Hutto and A. J. Jenkins, “Critical Evaluation of Adult Treatment Panel III Criteria in Identifying Insulin Resistance with Dyslipidemia,” Diabetes Care, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2004, pp. 978-983. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.4.978
 K. L. Cheal, F. Abbasi, C. Lamendola, T. McLaughlin, G. M. Reaven and E. S. Ford, “Relationship to Insulin Resistance of the Adult Treatment Panel III Diagnostic Criteria for Identification of the Metabolic Syndrome,” Diabetes, Vol. 53, No. 5, 2004, pp. 1195-1200.
 S. M. Grundy, J. I. Cleeman, S. R. Daniels, K. A. Donato, R. H. Eckel and B. A. Franklin, “Diagnosis and Management of the Metabolic Syndrome: An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement,” Circulation, Vol. 112, No. 17, 2005, pp. 2735-2752.
 G. Hu, Q. Qiao, J. Tuomilehto, M. Eliasson, E. J. Feskens and K. Pyorala, “Plasma Insulin and Cardiovascular Mortality in Non-Diabetic European Men and Women: A Meta-Analysis of Data from Eleven Prospective Studies,” Diabetologia, Vol. 47, No. 7, 2004, pp. 1245-1256.
 J. P. Despres, B. Lamarche, P. Mauriege, B. Cantin, G. R. Dagenais and S. Moorjani, “Hyperinsulinemia as an Independent Risk Factor for Ischemic Heart Disease,” N.Engl.J Med, Vol. 334, No. 15, 1996, pp. 952-957. doi:10.1056/NEJM199604113341504
 M. Pyorala, H. Miettinen, P. Halonen, M. Laakso and K. Pyorala, “Insulin Resistance Syndrome Predicts the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in Healthy Middle-Aged Men: The 22-Year Follow-Up Results of the Helsinki Policemen Study,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2000, pp. 538-544. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.20.2.538
 K. G. Alberti and P. Z. Zimmet, “Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications, Part 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus Provisional Report of a WHO Consultation,” Diabetic Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 7, 1998, pp. 539-553. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199807)15:7<539::AID-DIA668>3.0.CO;2-S
 X. Jiang, S. R. Srinivasan, B. Radhakrishnamurthy, E. R. Dalferes Jr., W. Bao and G. S. Berenson, “Microalbuminuria in Young Adults Related to Blood Pressure in a Biracial (Black-White) Population. The Bogalusa Heart Study,” American journal of hypertension, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1994, pp. 794-800.
 C. M. Hoehner, K. J. Greenlund, S. Rith-Najarian, M. L. Casper and W. M. McClellan, “Association of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome and Microalbuminuria among Nondiabetic Native Americans, the Inter-Tribal Heart Project,” American Society of Nephrology, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2002, pp. 1626-1634. doi:10.1097/01.ASN.0000015762.92814.85
 L. G. Hunsicker, S. Adler, A. Caggiula, B. K. England, T. Greene and J. W. Kusek, “Predictors of the Progression of Renal Disease in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study,” Kidney International, Vol. 51, 1997, pp. 1908-1919. doi:10.1038/ki.1997.260
 P. Muntner, J. Coresh, J. C. Smith, J. Eckfeldt and M. J. Klag, “Plasma Lipids and Risk of Developing Renal Dysfunction: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study,” Kidney International, Vol. 58, 2000, pp. 293-301. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2000.00165.x
 L. F. Fried, T. J. Orchard and B. L. Kasiske, “Effect of Lipid Reduction on the Progression of Renal Disease: A Meta-Analysis,” Kidney International, Vol. 59, 2001, pp. 260-269. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.00487.x
 L. Mykkanen, D. J. Zaccaro, L. E. Wagenknecht, D. C. Robbins, M. Gabriel and S. M. Haffner, “Microalbuminuria is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Subjects: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study,” Diabetes, Vol. 47, No. 5, 1998, pp. 793-800.
 J. Jeppesen, T.W. Hansen, S. Rasmussen, H. Ibsen, C. Torp-Pedersen and S. Madsbad, “Insulin Resistance, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease: A Population-Based Study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 49, No. 21, 2007, pp. 2112-2119. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.01.088