JBM  Vol.5 No.3 , March 2017
Detection of Mediterranean Fruit Fly Larvae Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Types of Fruit by HS-SPME GC-MS Method
Timely detection of Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is very important so that eradication action can be taken on time. The larvae stage of this insect is the most dangerous stage as it is within the pulp of the fruit, making it hard to detect by visual inspection. In most countries at ports of entry the inspector check a small sample of fruit by visual inspection or by cutting the produce and searching for fungus and pests. This paper will investigate a quick, reliable and sensitive method to determine the presence of fruit flies. Our research focuses on developing the technology for detecting hidden infestations by using the Head Space-Soild Phase Micro Extraction (HS-SPME) method coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrocopy (GC-MS) technique. Five different types of fruit were infested with an early stage of Medfly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephidae). We investigated to detect the differences in volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) between infested and non- infested fruits by using HS-SPME with (GC-MS). The results indicated that for few chemicals no significant differences between infested and non-infested fruit can be seen, especially in the fruits with first instar. However, in case of third instar larvae infested fruits significant differences in the chemicals can be seen as compare to non infested fruits and other instar infestations. These chemicals include ethyl (Z)-2 butenoate, 2-heptanone, anisole, β-cis-ocimene, 1,3,7-nonatriene,4,8-dimethy-,ethyl octyate, isoamyl caproate and 1β,4βh,10βh- guaia-5,11-diene, in apple. Ethyl (Z)-2-butenoate, (+)-2-bornanone, (-)-trans- isopiperitenol, methyl caprate, caryophyllene and farnesene in orange. Butanoic acid, 3-methyl-,2-methylbutul acetate, sabinene, β-myrcene, octanoic acid, methyl ester, dihydrocarvone, (-)-trans-isopiperitenol and ethyl laurate in mandarin. Butyl 2-methylbutanoate, terpinen-4-ol, P-menth-8-en-2-one, E-,(3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene and dodecanoic acid, ethyl ester in lemon. Decane, 3-methyl-, p-menth-1,4(8)-diene, 1-undecene and α-cubebene in avocado. Thus, the VOC’s method could provide a possible tool for detecting tephritid larvae and this method could be adopted by industries importing and exporting fruit.
Cite this paper: Al-Khshemawee, H. , Agarwal, M. , Du, X. , Ren, Y. (2017) Detection of Mediterranean Fruit Fly Larvae Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Types of Fruit by HS-SPME GC-MS Method. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 5, 154-169. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2017.53017.

[1]   Duyck, P.F. and Quilici, S. (2002) Survival and Development of Different Life Stages of Three Ceratitis spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) Reared at Five Constant Temperatures. Bulletion of Entomological Research, 92, 461-469.

[2]   USDA-APHIS (2006) Exotic Fruit Fly Strategic Plan FY 2006-2010. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Plant Protection and Quarantine, Oct, 2015.

[3]   NFFS (2010) National Fruit Fly Strategy. Prepared by the NFFS Implementation Committee, April 2010.

[4]   Bolognesi, C. and Merlo, F.D. (2011) Pesticides: Human health Effects. In: Journal of Nrjagu, Ed., Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, Elsevier, Burlington, 438- 453.

[5]   Wang, Y., Yang, C., Li, S., Yang, L., Wang, Y. and Zhao, J. (2009) Volatile Charac-teristics of 50 Peaches and Nectarines Evaluated by HS-SPME with GC-MS. Food Chemistry, 116, 356-364.

[6]   Horvat, R.J., Chapman, G.W., Robertson, J.A., Meredith, F.I., Scorza, R. and Callahan, A.M. (1990) Comparison of the Volatile Compounds from Several Peach Cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 36, 234-237.

[7]   Thomas, D.B., Epsky, N.D., Serra, C.A., Hall, D.G., Kendra, P.E. and Heath, R.R. (2008) Ammonia Formulations and Capture of Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Entomology Science, 43, 76-85.

[8]   Gould, W.P. (1995) Probability of Detecting Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Fruit Dissection. Florida Entomologist, 78, 502-507.

[9]   USDA-APHIS (2010) Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Import Manual. U.S. Department of Agri-culture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

[10]   Howe, G.A. and Jander, G. (2008) Plant Immunity to Insect Herbivores. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 59, 41-66.

[11]   Carrasco, M., Montoya, P., Cruz-Lopez, L. and Rojas, J.C. (2005) Response of the Fruit FLY parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to Mango Fruit Volatiles. Envi-ronmental Entomology, 34, 576-583.

[12]   Neto, A.M., Tatiana, R.O., Vanessa. S., Benevides, C., Mariangela, V.L, Deise, C., Jair, V., Givanildo, B.O., Julio, M.M., Beatriz, A.J. and Antônio, N. (2012) Mass-Rearing of Mediterranean Fruit Fly Using Low-Cost Yeast Products Produced in Brazil. Sci. Agric., 69, 364-369.

[13]   SAS University Edition (2012) SAS Guide for Personal Computers, Ver-sion 8.2. SAS University Edition.

[14]   Chamberlain, K., Mathilde, B., Jennifer, H.J., Suzanne, J.C. and John, A.P. (2012) Use of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Detect the Presence of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (C.capitata Wiedemann) Larvae in Valencia Oranges. J. Sci. Food Agric., 92, 2050-2054.

[15]   Hernandez, M.M., Avispuro, I.V., Sanz, I., Adelantado, M. and Yafera, E.P. (1999) Electroantennogram Activity Assay of C. capitata to Airborne Volatiles from Peach of Three Ripeness Stages. J. of South-western Entomologist, 24, 133-142.

[16]   Hern, A. and Dorn, S. (2001) Induced Emissions of Apple Fruit Volatiles by the Codling Moth: Changing Patterns with Different Time Periods after Infestation and Different Larval Instars. Phytochemistry, 57, 409-416.

[17]   Li, Z., Ning, W., Raghavan, G.S. and Vigneault, C. (2009) Ripeness and Rot Evaluation of ‘Tommy Atkins’ Mango Fruit through Volatiles Detection. Journal of Food Engineering, 91, 319-324.

[18]   Tabilio , M.R., Dennis, F., Enrico, M., Stefano, M., Maurizio, D.R. and Salvador, S.M. (2013) Impact of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly) C. capitata on Different Peach Cultivars: The Possible Role of Volatile Peach Compounds. Food Chemistry, 140, 375-381.

[19]   Bylaite, E. and Anne, S.M. (2005) Characterisation of Volatile Aroma Compounds of Orange Juices by Three Dynamic and Static Headspace Gas Chromatography Tech-niques. European Food Research and Technology, 222, 176.

[20]   Qiao, Y., Bi, J.X., Yan, Z., Yun, Z., Gang, F., Xiao, L.Y. and Si, Y.P (2008) Char-acterization of Aroma Active Compounds in Fruit Juice and Peel Oil of Jinchen Sweet Orange Fruit (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) by GC-MS and GC-O. Molecules, 13, 1333-1344.

[21]   Zimba, K., Martin, P.H., Sean, D.M. and Unathi, H. (2015) Agathis bishopi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a Potential Tool for Detecting Oranges Infested with Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Insect Behaviour, 28, 618-633.

[22]   Kendra, P.E., Amy, L.R., Wayne, S.M., Elena, Q.S., Jerome, N., Nancy, D.E. and Robert, R.H. (2011) Gas Chromatography for Detection of Citrus Infestation by Fruit Fly Larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 59, 143-149.

[23]   Ovruski, S.M., Bendjian, L.R., Van, G.A., Medina, N. and Schliserman, P. (2011) Host Preference by D. longicaudala Reared on Larvae of A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Florida Entomologist, 94, 195-200.

[24]   Mann, R.S., Jared, G.A., Sara, L.H., Siddharth, T., Kirsten, S.P., Hans, T.A. and Lukasz, L.S. (2012) Induced Release of a Plant-Defense Volatile “Deceptively” Attracts Insect Vectors to Plants Infected with a Bacterial Pathogen. PLoS Pathogens, 3, 1-13.

[25]   Mercedes, G.L., Guzmánb, G.R. and Dorantes A.L. (2004) Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry of Volatile Compounds from Avocado Puree after Microwave Processing. Journal of Chromatography, 1036, 87- 90.

[26]   Jang, E.B., Light, D.M., Flath, R.A., Nagata, J.T. and Mon, T.R. (1989) Electroantennogram Responses of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata to Identified Volatile Constituents from Calling Males. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 50, 7-19.