ability; 2) Problems with customer capacity and consent; 3) Insufficient interaction between customer and developer; 4) Missing important requirements; 5) Only modelling functional requirements; 6) Overlook requirements reviewing; 7) Using designs to present requirements; 8) Focusing on perfecting requirements prior commencing coding phase, and 9) Substantial flaws with the schedule.
3.2. Agile Methods
Stavru surveyed the usage of agile methods through industrial survey studies published between 2011 and 2012  . They determined the papers, which could be trusted and recommend that the quality level of researches could be improved. The author concluded that the majority of the surveyed studies were incomprehensive in addition to being not trustworthy. On the other hand, the authors provided some recommendations in order to raise the research quality.
The recommendations include examining the rate of agile method usage as compared to alternative methods; examine the rate of agile method usage in an organizational level. Also, conducting researches about using agile method by academics beside industry in order to decrease the gap between industry and academia in addition to increase the trustworthiness in widespread adoption of agile method usage. Additionally, providing highly detailed reports in the future; thus, raising the level of confidence and trustworthiness in the reported studies.
Campanelli and Parreiras presented aspects of research on agile methods tailoring in  . The term agile method tailoring refers to the problem of selecting an agile method to be adopted in the organization. The authors analyze the total number of papers published in the area and proposed Figure 3 that shows the number of articles published on agile method tailoring per year. The authors classified the selected studies into two main category groups: categories focusing on research aspects such as research type and research validation, and categories focusing on technical aspects such as agile method covered and criteria for method tailoring.
Dingsøyr, et al. summarized the prior research in agile software development and presented them within three main categories: the first category is agile principles and agility, which involves adapting agile by refining the development process to adapt to changes as needed. The second category is Research on agile software development, which involves agile software development processes. The last category is the seminal contributors and their relationships, which involves identifying relationships among sources of seminal information of agile software development  .
da Silva Estácio and Prikladnicki studied the research studies that address Distributed Pair Programming (DPP) from educational or industrial perspectives in  . The term Pair Programming (PP) implies that two programmers are collaborating at one computer. The distributed word refers to the geograph-
Figure 3. Number of papers on agile methods per year. Adopted from  .
ical distribution of team members. The authors concluded that many quantitative and qualitative conclusions such as; Empirical studies involving DPP and real projects with industry professionals are very few and there are a need for more empirical studies. Few studies also investigate the effects of DPP with professionals, and the need to explore the effects of coordination, communication and cultural diversity in DPP.
Hamed and Abusham are viewed the most popular agile methods systematically and their appropriateness with regard to Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) environmental challenges in  . In this survey the authors proposed a definition and a discussion of Scrum, XP, Crystal family and Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) methods, then explored the SME software challenges. The similarities and differences of these methods were compared against the defined criteria.
Salvador, et al. reviewed the studies related to usability techniques in agile methods, namely; scrum, XP and crystal in  . Moreover, 32 papers were surveyed, the results of the survey showed that most frequent techniques used with agile methodologies are the complementary techniques. The survey also concluded that most of the studies performed usability evaluations only during the implementation phase, which in turn were mostly constructed as elaborations of case studies.
Hummel conducted a systematic and structured literature review of agile Information Systems Development (ISD) in  .Around 482 papers were collected and investigated, however the author extended the findings of previous three reviews by introducing new perspectives. The results illustrated a lack of agile ISD quantitative studies and theoretical underpinnings. While, XP is the most researched agile ISD method, scrum needs more research effort.
Dybå and Dingsøyr conducted a systematic review of 36 empirical studies of agile software development in the period from 2001 to 2005 to investigate the benefits, the limitations and the strength of evidence for agile methods. These studies were grouped into four main groups: introduction and adoption, human and social factors, perceptions on agile methods, and comparative studies. The focus was on the six agile methods; XP, Scrum, Crystal, DSDM, FDD, and Lean software development. The authors conclude that XP is the most common agile method investigated in the reviewed studies, and there is a need to investigate in the remaining agile methods. In addition to concern about the quality of studies provided  .
Abrahamsson, et al. presented a comparative analysis of agile software development methods, including the method’s life cycle coverage, project management support, practical guidance type, fitness-for-use, and empirical evidence as the analytical lenses in  . Moreover, the authors concluded that the majority of the studied methods did not concern about project management nor about improving the development team member's skills and capabilities. Finally, the authors recommend to concern about the quality of new methods instead of quantity of existing methods.
3.3. Hybrid Agile Methods
Selleri Silva, et al. presented a review study on the agile methodologies that integrate the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) where 3193 studies were identified and 81 were selected for evaluation and classified into two main classes; benefits to the organization in general and benefits to the development process. The results shows that using agile methods was helpful in reaching level 2 and level 3 of CMMI and in some cases even level 5  .
Torrecilla-Salinas et al. studied the applicability of complying with the CMMI- DEV model for Web development companies that have followed one of the agile methods  . The study surveyed the current state-of-the-art on this topic to answer five questions that were later used to analyze and evaluate the selected studies. Six papers were selected for evaluation out of more than 1453 studies. The results have shown that in the last 5 years more and more Web development companies are moving towards adopting agile methods in order to help be certified against CMMI-DEV.
Santana, et al. provided a literature review to identify software process improvement (SPI) in agile environment  . The authors classified the reviewed papers according to SPI aspects. Additionally, they identified new distinct approaches to Agile SPI, and they have suggested using one of the following three agile SPI approaches: top-down approach, the agile SPI based on improving behavior, and the agile SPI based on improving practices. The authors also identified the difference between traditional and agile SPI especially in their goals. The goal of traditional SPI is to elaborate a repeatable process that could be improved with lessons learned. On the other hand, the process in agile SPI should be ready for changes and improve its capability for changes. Furthermore, the author mentioned another difference that is related to the knowledge transfer policies; the traditional SPI dictates that knowledge should be transferred to people based on some organizational policies and criteria such as training and document use, while agile SPI considers knowledge transfer through meetings, informal and learning should be based on individual experiences of team members.
Literature on the application of different agile practices in Global Software Engineering (GSE) was summarized in  . The term GSE refers to distributing agile across cultural, temporal, and geographical boundaries. The authors classify researches according to research type, as shown in Figure 4. They conclude that the majority of studies are in the form of experience reports that contains the experience in particular issues. On the other hand, there is a need for providing more validation, and evaluation research. Another conclusion the authors mentioned that there is a need for analyzing the challenges and advantages of combining Agile and GSE in the form of evaluation research.
An overview of the use of software metrics in the industrial agile context is provided by  . This study makes three contributions: First, the authors categorize the metrics found in empirical agile studies and compares them with the metrics suggested by agile literature, and they conclude that agile teams use many metrics suggested by the agile literature. Second, the study highlights the reasons for and
Figure 4. Distribution of research types over the studied years. Adopted from  .
effects of using metrics in agile software development. They conclude that metrics are used in the following areas: Sprint and Project Planning, Sprint and Project Progress Tracking, Understanding and Improving Quality, Fixing Software Process Problems, and Motivating People. Third, the study identifies high influence metrics based on the number of occurrences and statements found in the primary studies, they conclude that Velocity, Effort estimate, and Defect count were the most popular metrics, and the most important metrics according to qualitative analysis of metric importance are Customer satisfaction, Technical debt, Build status, and Progress as working code.
Integrating agile software development processes with User Centered Design (UCD) was presented in  as a systematic literature review, in order to identify and classify various challenging factors that restrict Agile and User Centered Design Integration (AUCDI) such as: Lack of time for upfront activities, and to explore the proposed practices to deal with these challenges. The authors classify the finding in this topic according to publication channel and publication year.
Sriram and Mathew presented a review of literature on applying agile methodologies in Global Software Development (GSD) and how agile methodology fit in GSD  . Three main ideas were identified in this review paper on GSD; performance of global software development, governance related issues, and software engineering process related issues. More distant analysis of literature on both agile and GSD showed that various types of agile methods were applied and tailored appropriately to produce optimal performance in the context of GSD, while empirical studies addressing GSD-Agile fit were not found. The most common agile method used in GSD is SCRUM as the authors conclude.
Sohaib and Khan presented a literature review to describe how usability fit with agile software development in order to gain stronger and effective usable software system  . The authors mentioned that the usability could be adapted to agile software development by doing some steps such as: using more iterations and concern about testing at each phase of SDLC.
Using agile methods in the embedded software projects is reviewed systematically by Shen, et al. in  . The authors concluded that there is a need for more effective research is this area. Although, there are many difficulties, Xie, et al. concluded that using agile in such projects holds a positive impression  . The authors presented many challenges of applying agile in embedded software pro- jects, such as: development team challenges, time constraints and budget. The authors recommended choosing the appropriate agile method according to the challenges derived from the embedded system and how can the selected agile method tackle these challenges.
Sletholt, et al. conducted a literature review to investigate the effects of using agile practices in scientific software development processes, focusing on evaluating the agility of scientific software projects presented in five carefully selected papers. The authors defined and utilized an agile mapping chart, with elements based on Scrum and XP reference models for agility assessment purpose. The authors compare their findings with the previously provided surveys. The findings of these comparisons indicated that scientific software development projects that have adopted agile have an improved testing process to compare to the traditional methods  .
A new analytical framework developed by Qumer and Henderson-Sellerscalled (4-DAT)  . The proposed framework was applied on six agile selected methods in addition to two traditional methods for comparison purposes. The evaluation approach is done in this analytical framework to evaluate these methods at the process level and practice level from four perspectives. The evaluation aimed to select an appropriate agile method for a particular development.
Rauf and Al Ghafees provided an industrial survey to study the use of scrum and XP agile practices in computer application development, the authors posted a questionnaire to investigate the benefits of using agile, 79 responses were collected from 45 companies. Survey results showed that 57% respondents use Scrum and in turn it is the most common agile method used, while 27% respondents use both XP and Scrum and only 5% respondents have reported to use XP solely. In addition, the authors investigated the strength of benefits against each agile practice, and explored the challenges against each agile practice  .
A web-based survey conducted by Begel and Nagappan of employees who are working on the software production processes  . The survey investigated how Microsoft employees use agile software development methods and how they penetrate of agile software development practices and their perceptions of why agile works well or poorly on their software teams. The employee’s responses indicate that around one-third of the respondents use agile, and SCRUM is the most popular method with 65% of the respondents were using it in their team, and most of agile users have a positive opinion about it.
4. Literature Review
In the following subsections, the authors will briefly introduce three agile methods (i.e. XP, Scrum and FDD), then review the most recent researches that, up- to-our-knowledge, have not been addressed in any other literature review yet.
4.1. Extreme Programming (XP)
Among all of the agile methods, Extreme Programming (XP) is the most popular and well-documented method   . The XP method was first proposed by Beck as a last resort to rescue a project that had been declared a failure  . In XP, simplicity is the driving factor that applies to the software development practices including the communications with the customer. Beck has defined twelve rules that govern the XP method   that are:
・ Planning Game: the planning starts at the beginning of each iteration where the stakeholders of the project meet to define, estimate and prioritize the “User Stories” (i.e. requirements) for the next release.
・ Small Releases: there are two types of version releases: initial version and working version. The initial version is produced after a few iterations and it does not implement all features, but only essential ones. While, a working version is produced after a few weeks and contains most of the features.
・ Metaphor: it is used in the modelling of the software system and is constructed by all the stakeholders.
・ Simple Design: It is the base of the XP methodology and applies to the requirements gathering, system design, coding, and communications with the customer.
・ Tests: In XP methodology, testing is considered one of the major activities to ensure high quality product in addition to high customer satisfaction. Testing begins before the coding phase, where developers are required to prepare the test functions prior writing the code itself. While, customers are required to prepare the functional test scenarios for each iteration.
・ Refactoring: It means that any changes made on the system must uphold the simplicity feature.
・ Pair Programming: Coding of the software system is carried out in a group of two developers.
・ Continuous Integration: New parts of the software system are integrated as soon as they pass both the unit and functional test cases.
・ Collective Ownership: The ownership of the code produced belongs to all the developers.
・ On-Site Customer: Someone from the customer side must work with the development team at all times.
・ 40-Hour Weeks: The maximum working hours per week for developers must not exceed 40-hours, which implies that the requirements must be revised to adhere to this rule.
・ Open Workspace: All work, including coding and development must take place in a common environment.
Following, the review of the most recent works on XP that, up-to-our-know- ledge, have not been addressed in any other literature review yet.
Chen and Wu proposed a modified method of XP consisting of 11 steps called “my Agile” in order to allow more integration between XP methodology and other computer science topics such as data structure, Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), algorithms, etc. The 11 steps proposed method (“my Agile”) shares 4 steps with the original XP method, which are step 5: “Dispatching and Scheduling”, step 6: “Unit Test Code”, step 9: “Coding” and step 10: “Unit Testing and Acceptance Testing”. Although, the authors identify steps 0, 1, 2 and 3 (“Exploring Requirements”, “Scenarios”, “Acceptance Test Cases and User Manual”, and “CRC Session” accordingly) as adopted from the Software Engineering discipline, steps 0 and 1 can be easily mapped to the first rule (i.e. planning the game) of the original XP method. While, step 3 can be partly mapped to the fifth rule (i.e. testing). Although, the remaining three steps 4, 7 and 8 (“Reverse Engineering Tool”, “Data Structure Design”, and “Algorithm Design” accordingly) are identified as novel steps designed specifically for “my Agile”, step 4 can be seen as merely using Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools to automate some of the design and verification steps. A project aiming to develop a student grading system was designed to evaluate the proposed methodology and it was applied in four universities in Taiwan  .
Haryono presented a case study where XP methodology was applied in a project for developing a Financial Management System (FMS) as a part of the E-Government (e-Gov) in Indonesia  . The project followed the core practices of XP methodology as shown in Figure 5. The project was evaluated using a satisfaction questionnaire. The results showed that 100% of respondents were satisfied with the method and indicated that it has helped with communications. Moreover, it showed an increase in the sense of belonging to the system. Nonetheless, 2% of respondents declared it less fit to the project type.
Radhakrishnan, et al. proposed a generic software model for educational purposes that improves on the Common Software Measurement Integration Consortium―Full Function Point (COSMIC FFP) method  . The method is designed to measure the functional size of software, including real-time software to better estimate project resources and schedules. The proposed model “eXtreme Software Teaching” (XSOFT) integrates the XP method with the COSMIC FFP method to help bridging the effort and time gap between learning software development and working in software development.
Scrum is a management and control process used for developing and sustaining complex products in order to build software that meets business needs, incrementally and empirically. It is considered a widely used agile method, first
Figure 5. Development methodology of the Indonesian E-gov FMS project. Adopted from  .
described in the year 1996  . Scrum is also considered a lightweight, simple to understand and difficult to master method.
Scrum starts by splitting the project into iterations (sprints). Before each sprint, in the planning phase, all tasks to be done are kept in a list called “release backlog”. During the planning process a next-sprint goal is identified and announced to the developers in order to show them the tasks are being performed and at which level of detail to implement them, in addition, a prioritized collection of tasks are selected from release backlog to be completed in the next sprint. When the planning phase is complete, each development team carries their tasks.
The tasks in the sprint backlog remain unchanged until the end of the sprint phase. While the development teams develop their tasks, the project should be tracked and monitored through daily meetings and track tasks status in order to enhance communications between teams and keep focus on the overall project goals. After every sprint, an analysis and evaluation process progress through pre-sprint meeting.
Following, the review of the most recent works on Scrum that, up-to-our- knowledge, have not been addressed in any other literature review yet.
Chandana Ranasinghe and Perera demonstrated how the challenges and issues related to offshore development (OSD) in Sri Lankan context can be overcome using the scrum method, and to achieve success in OSD it is important to combine engineering practices with scrum  .
Esteves Maria, et al. described the use of the scrum agile method and its best practices in the development of several academic interdisciplinary projects, which are (1) a Java application prototype, based on Big Data, IoT, and (2) Credit Card fraud detection for a Proof of Concept (PoC), using cloud-compu- ting resources accordingly  .
Scott, et al. aimed to support the meshing hypothesis through using teaching strategies matching the Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model in a Scrum course and focusing on the processing dimension of this model. Consequently, the authors corroborated that the knowledge of Scrum of the undergraduate students’ was improved when they were given suitable instructional methods according to the processing dimension of their learning styles. The authors provided experiments as evidence to support the meshing hypothesis  .
Pierre Mattei, et al. used a combination of scrum agile methods with model-based programming to overcome the restraints of developing Space on-board system project, which is considered complex, time consuming, and highly susceptible to errors  .
de Souza, et al. presented an evaluation of Scrum adaptations to evaluate the capstone project  . A case study is also presented that illustrates the adoption of Scrum to manage the capstone project, which represented a direct and objective approach in order to have an environment similar to the real one. The authors’ proposal was to determine, discuss and quantify how flexible and collaborative Scrum becomes when teaching Software Engineering.
Pauly, et al. presented a study to assess the adoption or adaption of Scrum principles at an e-commerce company. The authors presented an in-depth single case study, which in turn revealed that not all scrum principles are suitable in each context  .
The relationship between SCRUM and SDLC practices was studied in  . The authors proposed a framework to utilize the user experience design in SDLC in organizations that use SCRUM in association with Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) practices. Moreover, the authors utilized the user experience design dimensions recommended by the Human Factors Institute, which include training of professionals, creating and managing metrics to evaluate the usability, and establishing a successful cases database for training purposes. Many studies focus on using the scrum agile method in software companies, such as  that study using of SCRUM in Brazilian small business.
Raj, et al. proposed a modified scrum process that focuses more on testing, using Test-as-a-Service (TAAS) implementation in order to get the results faster without increasing the cost of the project  .
4.3. Feature-Driven Development (FDD)
FDD methodology is one of the AGILE methods for software development. FDD is an iterative and incremental method based on dividing the software into many different features (models), and then builds each model separately. The development process for each model (feature) consists of five activities: develop general model, build feature list, plan for feature, design for feature and build by feature.
In the first activity, develop overall model, general high-level overview of the project is set to better understand the problem domain, this step is important to the team in order to manage the relationship and interaction between the team members and the customer. In build feature list activity, the team uses the knowledge extracted from the first activity to build a list of features (or functionalities) required, and categorize them according to business subjects.
The next activity is to plan for feature, in this stage, the development plan set by the project manager and development manager, the plan contains the ownership of feature, the time schedule and the responsibilities of the feature development team. In the next activity, design the feature, the focus moves to the features itself according to the programming tasks, the classes defined, the sequence diagrams provided and methods prologue defined. The final activity is to build by feature where each feature developed.
FDD is used for large projects, because it can be divided into many small-size tasks, which increase the possibility to complete the project successfully. This also gives the management the feasibility to change the team while the project running is without affecting the project time schedule and the overall quality. On the other hand, the documentation task is more complex, and the overhead of the chief programmer is high, because he acts as a coordinator, mentor and lead designer.
Mahdavi-Hezave and Ramsin proposed the Feature-Driven Methodology Development (FDMD) for Situational Method Engineering (SME), where the object-oriented features used to specify the requirement of the target methodology of SME in order to facilitate the development of the target methodology, and enhance maintainability and reusability  .
ISMAIL, et al. compared the difference between using FDD and SCRUM methodologies to gather requirements for Open Source Software (OSS) projects  . The authors concluded that FDD team gets more time than SCRUM to accept changes in requirements, because FDD divided changes according to its severity while SCRUM accepted changes in requirement at any stage of the development process. The authors conclude that both the methodologies set the tasks priorities with different roles, in FDD the domain expert does this task, while in SCRUM it is done be scrum master. The authors compare the two methodologies according to customer interaction too. They conclude that the customer interact with teams at every phase in SCRUM, and in the initial phase in FDD.
In this section, the evaluation of the reviewed studies is categorized into two main categories; survey of surveys and new agile methods.
5.1. Evaluation of the Survey of Surveys
In this survey, the authors study several surveys related to agile software development. Table 3 summarizes twenty-sex survey papers related to agile software
Table 3. Review of the different surveys using agile methods.
development in the last 15 years. The table indicates the reference number for each paper, the paper published year, the paper type (whether the paper is published in either a conference (C) or a journal (J)). Additionally, Table 3 demonstrates the publisher and shows the survey category used in the article according to classification illustrated in Figure 2. Furthermore, it illustrates the period covered by the survey paper in addition to the number of articles surveyed in each reference. Finally, it lists the methods used in each survey.
As illustrated in Table 3, the number of surveys in agile software development increased in the last three years, the year 2015 alone has eight papers, six journal articles and two conference papers were published in reputable databases. The reason of this increase refers to the increasing number of methods and enhancements of the Agile methods; thus, the need to compare, analyze and summarize the increasing amount of researches in Agile methods become a very important topic to the researcher and to the software development industry in order to improve their performance to gain better output quality. Figure 6 shows the number of survey papers published per year.
Interestingly, the distribution of paper type across conference papers and journal articles was divided equally as shown in Figure 7.
Figure 8 presents the ratio of published papers per publisher. It shows that Elsevier has the highest percentage of 38%, while Wiley has the lowest percentage of 8%.
Notably, “Hybrid Agile Methods” category was the most of surveyed in the literature showing the importance of agile method compared to the other development methodologies. Figure 9 shows the percentage of survey papers based on the four classification categories.
Lastly, XP and Scrum Agile methods were the most surveyed agile methods. Over 5529 papers were addressed in total in all of the 26 survey papers.
Figure 6. Number of survey papers published per year.
Figure 7. Distribution of surveys based on paper type.
Figure 8. Distribution of survey papers based on publisher.
Figure 9. Percentage of survey papers based on their classification.
5.2. Evaluation for the New Agile Methods
Table 4 summarizes the evaluation for the new agile method reviewed in Section 5. It compares the new agile methods according to the changes made on the software development life cycle (SDLC). The results shows that all of the newly proposed methods ignore improving the coding stage, while, focusing on improving both the requirements and testing stages. As explained in Section 4(A), although the authors of “my Agile” claim to have improved on the original XP method, the authors were able to dispute their claim and map most of the changes back to the original XP. On the other hand, “XSOFT” did not proposed any changes on the original XP method. Instead, it proposed integrating the XP method with the COSMIC FFP method to in order to minimize the gap between learning software development and working in software development. As explained in Section 4(B), “Modified Scrum process” method proposed outsourcing the testing phase by utilizing the cloud testing services (TAAS) in order to improve the software testing results without increasing the cost of the project.
Table 4. Comparison between the different Agile Methods in terms of changes made tothe SDLC.
As explained in Section 4(C), “FDMD” utilized common OOP practices in the requirements elicitation.
Agile is considered one of the most popular software design and development methodologies. In this study, a literature survey study of the surveys of the different agile methodologies ranging from January 2000 and December 2015 has been conducted. In this study, 26 survey studies were selected for review and evaluation using a new proposed research methodology called “Compare and Review”. The surveyed studies classified into four categories: “Agile Requirements Engineering”, “Agile Methods”, “Hybrid Agile Methods” and “Miscellaneous”. Moreover, four newly proposed agile methodologies were reviewed, analyzed and compared. The evaluation shows that most of surveys were proposed and published in 2015, and the most surveyed category were the Hybrid Agile methods.
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