CWEEE  Vol.6 No.2 , April 2017
A Review: Evolutionary Computations (GA and PSO) in Geotechnical Engineering
Abstract: This study briefly reviews the application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) in geotechnical engineering since GA and PSO are widely used in civil engineering. The application of GA and PSO is studied in three popular families of geotechnical problems including unconfined seepage analysis, slope stability analysis, and foundation design. In each category the available results from different studies are reviewed and compared. The comparison of results shows the desirable accuracy in the predicting of optimal values in the process of analysis and design. The presented methods perform successfully in the reviewed problems. However, PSO predicts the optimum values in fewer numbers of iterations, which suggests higher performance in term of implementation/application.
Cite this paper: Andrab, S. , Hekmat, A. and Yusop, Z. (2017) A Review: Evolutionary Computations (GA and PSO) in Geotechnical Engineering. Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 6, 154-179. doi: 10.4236/cweee.2017.62012.

[1]   Moses, F. (1964) Optimum Structural Design Using Linear Programming. Journal of the Structural Division, 90, 89-104.

[2]   Erbatur, F. and Al-Hussainy, M. (1992) Optimum Design of Frames. Computers & Structures, 45, 887-891.

[3]   Rafsanjani, H.N., Shahrokhabadi, S. and Hadjahmadi, A. (2013) The Use of Linear Regression to Estimate the Actual Hourly Production of a Wheel-Type Loader in Construction Projects. International Conference on Sustainable Design, Engineering, and Construction 2012, 727-731.

[4]   Kuhn, H.W. and Tucker, A.W. (1951) Nonlinear Programming. Proceedings of the 2nd Berkeley Symposium on Mathematics, Statistics and Probability, University of California Press, Berkeley, 481-492.

[5]   Camp, C., Pezeshk, S. and Cao, G. (1998) Optimized Design of Two-Dimensional Structures Using a Genetic Algorithm. Journal of Structural Engineering, 124, 551-559.

[6]   Kuhn, H.W. (2014) Nonlinear Programming: A Historical View. In: Giorgi, G. and Kjeldsen, T.H., Eds., Traces and Emergence of Nonlinear Programming, Springer, Basel, 393-414.

[7]   Yi, C. and Lu, M. (2016) A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming Approach for Temporary Haul Road Design in Rough-Grading Projects. Automation in Construction, 71, 314-324.

[8]   SriVidya, A. and Ranganathan, R. (1995) Reliability Based Optimal Design of Reinforced Concrete Frames. Computers & Structures, 57, 651-661.

[9]   McCall, J. (2005) Genetic Algorithms for Modelling and Optimisation. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 184, 205-222.

[10]   Lagaros, N.D., Papadrakakis, M. and Kokossalakis, G. (2002) Structural Optimization Using Evolutionary Algorithms. Computers & Structures, 80, 571-589.

[11]   Barricelli, N.A. (1963) Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories. Acta Biotheoretica, 16, 99-126.

[12]   Keshanchi, B., Souri, A. and Navimipour, N.J. (2017) An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Task Scheduling in the Cloud Environments Using the Priority Queues: Formal Verification, Simulation, and Statistical Testing. Journal of Systems and Software, 124, 1-21.

[13]   Goldberg D.E. (1989) Genetic Algorithms in Search Optimization, and Machine Learning. Machine Learning, 3, 95-99.

[14]   Liang, Y., Yeh, T.C.J., Wang, J., Liu, M., Zha, Y. and Hao, Y. (2017) An Auto-Adaptive Moving Mesh Method for the Numerical Simulation of Piping Erosion. Computers and Geotechnics, 82, 237-248.

[15]   Holland, J.H. (1975) Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and Artificial Intelligence. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

[16]   Kennedy, J. and Eberhart, R. (1995) Particle Swarm Optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, 4, 1942-1948.

[17]   Rada-Vilela, J., Johnston, M. and Zhang, M. (2014) Population Statistics for Particle Swarm Optimization: Resampling Methods in Noisy Optimization Problems. Swarm and Evolutionary Computation, 17, 37-59.

[18]   Fernandez-Marquez, J.L. and Arcos, J.L. (2010) Adapting Particle Swarm Optimization in Dynamic and Noisy Environments. IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Barcelona, 18-23 July 2010, 1-8.

[19]   Brunner, P., Cook, P.G. and Simmons, C.T. (2009) Hydrogeologic Controls on Disconnection between Surface Water and Groundwater. Water Resources Research, 45, W01422.

[20]   Wang, Y., Hu, M., Zhou, Q. and Rutqvist, J. (2016) A New Second-Order Numerical Manifold Method Model with an Efficient Scheme for Analyzing Free Surface Flow with Inner Drains. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 40, 1427-1445.

[21]   Toufigh, V. (2016) Constrained Optimization Based FE Mesh Deforming Algorithm for Unconfined Seepage Problems. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 40, 6754-6765.

[22]   Connor, J.J. and Brebbia, C.A. (1976) Finite Element Techniques for Fluid Flow. Newnes, Butterworths, London, 317 p.

[23]   Ouria, A. and Toufigh, M.M. (2009) Application of Nelder-Mead Simplex Method for Unconfined Seepage Problems. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 33, 3589-3598.

[24]   Fenton, G.A. and Griffiths, D.V. (1997) A Mesh Deformation Algorithm for Free Surface Problems. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 21, 817-824.<817::AID-NAG902>3.0.CO;2-D

[25]   Shahrokhabadi, S. and Toufigh, M.M. (2013) The Solution of Unconfined Seepage Problem Using Natural Element Method (NEM) Coupled with Genetic Algorithm (GA). Applied Mathematical Modelling, 37, 2775-2786.

[26]   Westbrook, D.R. (1985) Analysis of Inequality and Residual Flow Procedures and an Iterative Scheme for Free Surface Seepage. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 21, 1791-1802.

[27]   Chen, J.T., Hsiao, C.C., Chiu, Y.P. and Lee, Y.T. (2007) Study of Free-Surface Seepage Problems Using Hypersingular Equations. Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering, 23, 755-769.

[28]   Chaiyo, K., Rattanadecho, P. and Chantasiriwan, S. (2011) The Method of Fundamental Solutions for Solving Free Boundary Saturated Seepage Problem. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 38, 249-254.

[29]   Shahrokhabadi, S. and Ahmadi, A. (2013) Method of Fundamental Solution (MFS) coupled with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to Determine Optimal Phreatic Line in Unconfined Seepage Problem. Scientia Iranica, 20, 1327.

[30]   Shahrokhabadi, S., Vahedifard, F. and Yarahmadian, S. (2016) Integration of Thiele Continued Fractions and the Method of Fundamental Solutions for Solving Unconfined Seepage Problems. Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 71, 1479-1490.

[31]   Ozis, T. (1981) Numerical Solution of Free Boundary Problems by Interchanging Dependent and Independent Variables. Doctoral Dissertation, Brunel University, London.

[32]   Fu, J.F. and Sheng, J.I.N. (2009) A Study on Unsteady Seepage Flow through Dam. Journal of Hydrodynamics, 21, 499-504.

[33]   Hang, M. (2002) A 3D Slope Stability Analysis Method Assuming Parallel Lines of Intersection and Differential Straining of Block Contacts. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 39, 799-811.

[34]   Gao, W. (2015) Slope Stability Analysis Based on Immunised Evolutionary Programming. Environmental Earth Sciences, 74, 3357-3369.

[35]   Vahedifard, F., Shahrokhabadi, S. and Leshchinsky, D. (2016) Optimal Profile for Concave Slopes under Static and Seismic Conditions. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 53, 1522-1532.

[36]   Abramson, L.W. (2002) Slope Stability and Stabilization Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.

[37]   Shahrokhabadi, S., Khoshfahm, V. and Rafsanjani, H.N. (2014) Hybrid of Natural Element Method (NEM) with Genetic Algorithm (GA) to Find Critical Slip Surface. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 53, 373-383.

[38]   Zheng, H., Liu, D.F. and Li, C. (2005) Slope Stability Analysis Based on Elasto-Plastic Finite Element Method. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 64, 1871-1888.

[39]   Sun, J., Li, J. and Liu, Q. (2008) Search for Critical Slip Surface in Slope Stability Analysis by Spline-Based GA Method. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 134, 252-256.

[40]   Zolfaghari, A.R., Heath, A.C. and McCombie, P.F. (2005) Simple Genetic Algorithm Search for Critical Non-Circular Failure Surface in Slope Stability Analysis. Computers and Geotechnics, 32, 139-152.

[41]   Morgenstern, N.R. and Price, V.E. (1965) The Analysis of the Stability of General Slip Surfaces. Géotechnique, 15, 79-93.

[42]   Cheng, Y.M. (2003) Location of Critical Failure Surface and Some Further Studies on Slope Stability Analysis. Computers and Geotechnics, 30, 255-267.

[43]   Cheng, Y.M., Li, L., Chi, S.C. and Wei, W.B. (2007) Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for the Location of the Critical Non-Circular Failure Surface in Two-Dimensional Slope Stability Analysis. Computers and Geotechnics, 34, 92-103.

[44]   Greco, V.R. (1996) Efficient Monte Carlo Technique for Locating Critical Slip Surface. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 122, 517-525.

[45]   Malkawi, A.I.H., Hassan, W.F. and Sarma, S.K. (2001) Global Search Method for Locating General Slip Surface Using Monte Carlo Techniques. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 127, 688-698.

[46]   Park, G.-J., Lee, T.-H., Lee, K.H. and Hwang, K.-H. (2006) Robust Design: An Overview. AIAA Journal, 44, 181-191.

[47]   Juang, C.H., Wang, L., Hsieh, H.S. and Atamturktur, S. (2014) Robust Geotechnical Design of Braced Excavations in Clays. Structural Safety, 49, 37-44.

[48]   Juang, C.H., Wang, L., Liu, Z., Ravichandran, N., Huang, H. and Zhang, J. (2013) Robust Geotechnical Design of Drilled Shafts in Sand: New Design Perspective. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 139, 2007-2019.

[49]   Juang, C.H. and Wang, L. (2013) Reliability-Based Robust Geotechnical Design of Spread Foundations Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Computers and Geotechnics, 48, 96-106.

[50]   Wang, Y. and Kulhawy, F.H. (2008) Economic Design Optimization of Foundations. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 134, 1097-1105.

[51]   Deb, K., Pratap, A., Agarwal, S. and Meyarivan, T.A.M.T. (2002) A Fast and Elitist Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm: NSGA-II. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 6, 182-197.

[52]   Gao, L., Ji, B.Q. and Li, M.K. (2014) Application of Particle Swarm Optimization on Settlement Fitting of Highway Foundation. The Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 19, 17397-17403.

[53]   Biot, M.A. (1941) General Theory of Three-Dimensional Consolidation. Journal of Applied Physics, 12, 155-164.

[54]   Ma, N.-F. (2007) Monitoring and FLAC Simulating on Settlement Laws of Soft Soil Roadbed of Highway. Journal of Xi’an University of Science and Technology, 2.

[55]   Huang, Y., Zhang, T., Yu, T. and Wu, X.G. (2005) Support Vector Machine Model of Settlement Prediction of Road Soft Foundation. Rock and Soil Mechanics (Wuhan), 26, No. 12.

[56]   Disfani, M.M., Arulrajah, A., Suthagaran, V. and Bo, M.W. (2013) Long-Term Settlement Prediction for Wastewater Biosolids in Road Embankments. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 77, 69-77.

[57]   Owen, K.K. and Wong, D.W. (2013) An Approach to Differentiate Informal Settlements Using Spectral, Texture, Geomorphology and Road Accessibility Metrics. Applied Geography, 38, 107-118.

[58]   Zhao, H. (2006) Swarm Intelligent Model for Deformation Predicting of Slope. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, 25, 1664-1669.

[59]   Diersch, H.J. (2013) FEFLOW: Finite Element Modeling of Flow, Mass and Heat Transport in Porous and Fractured Media. Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin.

[60]   Schranz, F. and Fellin, W. (2015) Stability of Infinite Slopes Investigated with Elastoplasticity and Hypoplasticity. Geotechnik, 39, 184-194.

[61]   Vahedifard, F., Shahrokhabadi, S. and Leshchinsky, D. (2016) Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Structures with Concave Facing Profile. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 44, 358-365.

[62]   Chan, C.M., Zhang, L.M. and Ng, J.T. (2009) Optimization of Pile Groups Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithms. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 135, 497-505.

[63]   Hekmat, A., Yusop, Z.B., Kashefizadeh, M. and Gholizadeh, R. (2013) Three Dimensional Dynamic Analysis of Interaction Soil-Pile with Coupling Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Boundary Element Method (BEM). Caspian Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2, 269-275.

[64]   Armaghani, D.J., Raja, R.S.N.S.B., Faizi, K. and Rashid, A.S.A. (2015) Developing a Hybrid PSO-ANN Model for Estimating the Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Rock-Socketed Piles. Neural Computing and Applications, 28, 1-15.

[65]   Shahrokhabadi, S. and Nazeryzadeh, N. (2013) Efficacy of Resinous Polypropylene (PP) Fibers on Strength Behavior of Reinforced Soils. In: Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 787, Trans Tech Publications, 75-80.

[66]   Lackner, C., Bergado, D.T. and Semprich, S. (2013) Prestressed Reinforced Soil by Geosynthetics—Concept and Experimental Investigations. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 37, 109-123.

[67]   Chaiyaput, S., Bergado, D.T. and Artidteang, S. (2014) Measured and Simulated Results of a Kenaf Limited Life Geosynthetics (LLGs) Reinforced Test Embankment on Soft Clay. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 42, 39-47.

[68]   Bazne, M.O., Vahedifard, F. and Shahrokhabadi, S. (2015) The Effect of Geonet Reinforcement on Bearing Capacity of Low-Compacted Soft Clay. Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology, 2, 47-63.

[69]   Hou, J., Zhang, M.X., Dai, Z.H., Li, J.Z. and Zeng, F.F. (2017) Bearing Capacity of Strip Foundations in Horizontal-Vertical Reinforced Soils. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 45, 29-34.