WSN  Vol.1 No.3 , October 2009
ContSteg: Contourlet-Based Steganography Method
A category of techniques for secret data communication called steganography hides data in multimedia me-diums. It involves embedding secret data into a cover-medium by means of small perceptible and statistical degradation. In this paper, a new adaptive steganography method based on contourlet transform is presented that provides large embedding capacity. We called the proposed method ContSteg. In contourlet decomposi-tion of an image, edges are represented by the coefficients with large magnitudes. In ContSteg, these coeffi-cients are considered for data embedding because human eyes are less sensitive in edgy and non-smooth re-gions of images. For embedding the secret data, contourlet subbands are divided into 4×4 blocks. Each bit of secret data is hidden by exchanging the value of two coefficients in a block of contourlet coefficients. Ac-cording to the experimental results, the proposed method is capable of providing a larger embedding capacity without causing noticeable distortions of stego-images in comparison with a similar wavelet-based steg-anography approach. The result of examining the proposed method with two of the most powerful steganaly-sis algorithms show that we could successfully embed data in cover-images with the average embedding ca-pacity of 0.05 bits per pixel.

Cite this paper
nullH. SAJEDI and M. JAMZAD, "ContSteg: Contourlet-Based Steganography Method," Wireless Sensor Network, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2009, pp. 163-170. doi: 10.4236/wsn.2009.13022.
[1]   C. Liu and S. Liao, “High-performance JPEG steganography using complementary embedding strategy,” Pattern Recogni-tion, Vol. 41, pp. 2945–2955, 2008.

[2]   EzStego,

[3]   A. Westfeld, “F5-a steganographic algorithm: High capacity despite better steganalysis,” Proceeding of 4th International Workshop on Information Hiding, 2001.

[4]   N. Provos, “Defending against statistical steganalysis,” Pro-ceeding of 10th USENIX Security Symposium, pp. 323–336, 2001.

[5]   P. Sallee, “Model-based steganography,” Proceeding of Inter-national Workshop on Digital Watermarking, Seoul, Korea, 2003.

[6]   J. Fridrich, M. Goljan, and D. Soukal, “Perturbed quantization steganography with wet paper codes,” Proceeding of ACM Multimedia Workshop, Germany, 2004.

[7]   K. Solanki, A. Sarkar, and B. S. Manjunath, “YASS: Yet an-other steganographic scheme that resists blind steganalysis,” Proceeding of 9th International Workshop on Information Hid-ing, June 2007.

[8]   K. Zhiwei, L. Jing, and H. Yigang, “Steganography based on wavelet transform and modulus function,” Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 628–632, 2007.

[9]   J. Fridrich and R. Du, “Secure steganographic methods for palette images,” Proceeding of 2nd International Information Hiding Workshop. LNCS, Vol. 1768, pp. 47– 60, 2000.

[10]   H. Sajedi and M. Jamzad, “Adaptive steganography method based on contourlet transform,” Proceedings of 9th Interna-tional Conference on Signal Processing (ICSP’08), October 26–29, 2008.

[11]   M. Do and M. Vetterli, “Contourlets: A directional multireso-lution image representation,” Proceedings of ICIP, 2002.

[12]   N. Kaewkamnerd and K. R. Rao, “Wavelet based image adap-tive watermarking scheme,” Electronic Letters, Vol. 36, pp. 312–313, 2000.

[13]   B. Matalon, M. Elad, and M. Zibulevsky, “Image denoising with the contourlet transform,” Proceeding of SPIE Conference Wavelets, 2005.

[14]   Y. Lu and M. N. Do, “A directional extension for multidimen-sional wavelet transforms,” IP EDICS: 2-WAVP (Wavelets and Multiresolution Processing), 2005.

[15]   J. Seberry and J. Pieprzyk, “CRYPTOGRAPHY: An introduc-tion to computer security,” Prentice-Hall, New York, 1989.


[17]   A. K. Jain, “Fundamentals of digital image processing,” Pren-tice-Hall, New Jersey, 1989.

[18]   S. Lyu and H. Farid, “Detecting hidden messages using higher-order statistics and support vector machines,” Proceed-ing of 5th International Workshop on Information Hiding, 2002.

[19]   J. Fridrich, “Feature-based steganalysis for JPEG images and its implications for future design of steganographic schemes,” Proceeding of 6th Information Hiding Workshop, Toronto, 2004.

[20]   H. Sajedi and M. Jamzad, “A steganalysis method based on contourlet transform coefficients,” Proceeding of 4th Interna-tional Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Mul-timedia Signal Processing, 2008.

[21]   J. Fridrich, T. Pevny, and J. Kodovsky, “Statistically undetect-able JPEG steganography: Dead ends, challenges, and opportu-nities,” MM&Sec, ACM, Dallas, USA, 2007.