Health  Vol.9 No.3 , March 2017
The Effect of Cardiovascular Responses after Aerobic Exercise in Menstrual Cycle
Abstract: Purpose: We investigated the effect of menstrual cycle on the cardiovascular responses during recovery period from exercise. 10 healthy women were participated in the early follicular phase (EP: low estrogen and low progesterone: 1 - 4 days) and the late follicular phase (LP: high estrogen and low progesterone: 10 - 13 days) during menstrual cycle. Methods: All subjects completed a graded cycling exercise testing to determine the relative exercise intensity. All subjects were assessed systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and total vascular conductance (TVC) at resting and during recovery period from moderated cycling exercise during EP and LP. Results: During EP, compared with LP, resting SBP and MAP were higher and TVC was lower (p < 0.05). During recovery from exercise, SBP and MAP were higher and TVC lower during EP compared with LP (p < 0.05). There were no differences in HR, SV and CO in both phases. Conclusions: This study could be increased the peripheral vasoconstriction in low estrogen levels. And during early follicular phase with low estrogen level, it may maintain an increased blood pressure during recovery period following cycling. We suggest that the timing of the menstrual cycle should be considered when measuring blood pressure during clinical exercise testing.
Cite this paper: Park, J. , Kim, M. , Nho, H. , Kim, K. , Kim, J. and Choi, H. (2017) The Effect of Cardiovascular Responses after Aerobic Exercise in Menstrual Cycle. Health, 9, 425-434. doi: 10.4236/health.2017.93030.

[1]   Knowlton, A.A. and Lee, A.R. (2012) Estrogen and the Cardiovascular System. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 135, 54-70.

[2]   Shortreed, S.M., Peeters, A. and Forbes, A.B. (2013) Estimating the Effect of Long-Term Physical Activity on Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: Evidence from the Framingham Heart Study. Heart, 99, 649-654.

[3]   Xanne, A.K. and Janse, D.J. (2003) Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Exercise Performance. Sports Medicine, 33, 883-851.

[4]   Power, S.K. and Howley, E.T. (2001) Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. 6th Edition, Life Science Publishing Co., Seoul.

[5]   Harvey, P.J., Morris, B.L., Kubo, T., Picton, P.E., Su, W.S., Notarius, C.F., et al. (2005) Hemodynamic After-Effects of Acute Dynamic Exercise in Sedentary Normotensive Postmenopausal Women. Journal of Hypertension, 23, 285-292.

[6]   Hartwich, D., Aldred, S. and Fisher, J.P. (2013) Influence of Menstrual Cycle Phase on Muscle Metaboreflex Control of Cardiac Baroreflex Sensitivity, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure in Humans. Experimental Physiology, 98, 220-232.

[7]   Adkisson, E.J., Casey, D.P., Beck, D.T., Gurovich, A.N., Martin, J.S. and Braith, R.W. (2010) Central, Peripheral and Resistance Arterial Reactivity: Fluctuates During the Phases of the Menstrual Cycle. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 235, 111-118.

[8]   Choi, H.M., Charles, L.S., Nho, H., Kim, M.S., Chang, M.J. and Kim, J.K. (2013) Effects of Ovarian Cycle on Hemodynamic Responses During Dynamic Exercise in Sedentary Women. Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 17, 499-503.

[9]   Laukkanen, J.A., Sudhir, K., Ritta, S., Timo, A.L., Rainer, R. and Jukka, T.S. (2004) Systolic Blood Pressure During Recovery from Exercise and the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Men. Hypertension, 44, 820-825.

[10]   Carter III, R., Watenpaugh, D.E., Wasmund, W.L., Wasmund, S.L. and Smith, M.L. (1999) Muscle Pump and Central Command During Recovery from Exercise in Humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87, 1463-1469.

[11]   Carter, R., Watenpaugh, D.E. and Smith, M.L. (2001) Gender Differences in Cardio-vascular Regulation during Recovery From Exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 1902-1907.

[12]   Kulics, J.M., Collins, H.L. and DiCarlo, S.E. (1999) Postexercise Hypotension Is Mediated by Reductions in Sympathetic Nerve Activity. American Journal of Physiology, 276, H27-H32.

[13]   Halliwill, J.R. (2001) Mechanisms and Clinical Implications of Post-Exercise Hypotension in Humans. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 2, 65-70.

[14]   Lynn, B.M., McCord, J.L. and Halliwill, J.R. (2007) Effects of the Menstrual Cycle and Sex on Postexercise Hemodynamics. American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 292, R1260-R1270.

[15]   Ettinger, S.M., Silber, D.H., Gray, K.S., Smith, M.B., Yang, Q.X. and Kunselman, A.R. (1998) Effects of the Ovarian Cycle on Sympathetic Neural Outflow During Static Exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85, 2075-2081.

[16]   Boron, W.F. and Boulpaep, E.L. (2003) Medical Physiology: A Cellular and Molecular Approach. Saunders, Philadelphia.

[17]   Nho, H., Tanaka, K., Kim, H.S., Watanabe, Y. and Hiyama, T. (1998) Exercise Training in Female Patients with a Family History of Hypertension. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 78, 1-6.

[18]   American College of Sports Medicine (2009) ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 8th Edition, Williams & Wilkins, Seattle.

[19]   Jean, F.A., Coralie, F., Audrey, B.G., Julie, F., Henrik, L., Francoise, L., et al. (2010) Estrogen Receptors and Endothelium. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 30, 1506-1512.

[20]   De Cree, C. (2011) Cathecholamine Responses to Acute and Chronic Exericse According to Mestrural Status. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43, 1132.

[21]   Antonio, C., Valentina, O., Franco, M., Filippo, T. and Alberto, C. (2003) Hemodynamics during Active and Passive Recovery from a Single Bout of Supramaximal Exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 89, 209-216.

[22]   Carter, J.R., Fu, Q., Minson, C.T. and Joyner, M.J. (2013) Ovarian Cycle and Sympathoexcitation in Premenopausal Women. Hypertension, 61, 395-399.

[23]   Esformes, J.I., Norman, F., Sigley, J. and Birch, K.M. (2006) The Influence of Menstrual Cycle Phase upon Postexercise Hypotension. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38, 484-491.

[24]   Paolo, T., Federico, S. and Giosue, G. (2001) Post-Exercise Recovery of Autonomic Cardiovascular Control: A Study by Spectrum and Cross-Spectrum Analysis in Humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 84, 187-194.

[25]   Makoto, T., Masayoshi, S., Shino, U. and Toshiaki, N. (2003) Influence of Menstrual Cycle on Baroreflex Control of Heart Rate: Comparison with Male Volunteers. American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 258, R1019-R1097.

[26]   Senitk, A.N., Charkoudian, N. and Halliwill, J.R. (2002) Influence of Endurance Exercise Training Status and Gender on Postexercise Hypotension. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92, 2368-2374.