OJCD  Vol.7 No.1 , March 2017
Interval Training and Compensation of Type 2 Diabetes
Abstract: Introduction: The constant aerobic training is traditionally considered as the best physical activity for diabetic patients. But there is existing problem with adherence (complience) of this type of exercise and toleration of the specific training intensity of exercise for such training time. The advantage of interval training is usage of higher intensity of exercise for very short time alternating with low intensity of exercise. The complex effect of this type of exercise is not mentioned in literature of type 2 diabetes too much. The aim of the study was to find the effect of interval training compound to long term participation of specific exercise program. Methods: 43 obese type 2 diabetes patients treated by diet, oral antidiabetics or insulin were randomized to 2 groups. The control group consisted of 22 patients (12 women, 10 men) with average age 67.4 ± 8.4. 21 patients in main group with average age 65.29 ± 10.67 participated in a controlled exercise program. Before and after the study, both of 2 groups had complex internal investigation including spiroergometry. Results: Fitness parameters improved in this group of diabetics, maximal achieved power in W&middot;kg-1 increased statistically significantly p < 0.05. The level of total cholesterol decreased statistically significantly p < 0.05; average values of LDL-cholesterol decreased about 4.9% and triglycerids about 22.4%; average value of HDL-cholesterol increased about 4.6%; fasting plasma glucose levels decreased about 10.5%. Percentage of body fat p < 0.05 and diastolic blood pressure p < 0.05 decreased based on statistics. BMI tended to decrease but WHR did not change at all. Conclusion: The physical intervention influenced statistically significantly some of the observed parameters. The interval training as a part of physical activities of diabetic patients positively intervenes in complicated system of metabolical processes.
Cite this paper: Káfuňková, P. and Kvapil, M. (2017) Interval Training and Compensation of Type 2 Diabetes. Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, 7, 20-30. doi: 10.4236/ojcd.2017.71003.

[1]   Albright, A., Franz, M., Hornsby, G., Kriska, A., Marrero, D., Ullrich, I. and Verity, L.S. (2000) American College of Sports Medicine Position stand. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32, 1345-1360.

[2]   Praet, S.F., Junkers, R.A., Schep, G., Stehouwer, C.D., Kuipers, H., Keizer, H.A. and Van Loon, L.J. (2008) Long-Standing, Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Patiens with Complications Reskond Well to Short-Term Resistence and Interval Exercise Training. European Journal of Endocrinology, 158, 163-172.

[3]   Eriksson, G.J. (1999) Exercise and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Sports Medicine, 27, 381-391.

[4]   Wagner, H., Degerbled, M., Thorell, A., Nygren, J., Stahle, A., Kuhl, J., Brismar, T.B., Ohrivik, J., Efendic, S. and Bavenhol, P.N. (2006) Combined Treatment with Exercise Training and Acarbose Improves Metabolic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Profile in Subjects with Mild Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 29, 1471-1477.

[5]   Alam, S., Stolinski, M., Pentecost, C., Borojerdi, M.A., Jones, R.H., Sonksen, P.H. and Umpleby, A.M. (2004) The Effect of a Six-Month Exercise Program on Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Apolipoprotein B Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89, 688-694.

[6]   Kelly, G.A. and Kelly, K.S. (2007) Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Lipids and Lipoproteins in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. Public Health, 121, 643-655.

[7]   Sigal, R.J., Kenny, G.P., Boulé, N.G., Wells, G.A., Prud’Homme, D., Fortier, M., Reid, R.D., Tulloch, H., Coyle, D., Phillips, P., Jennings, A. and Jaffey, J. (2007) Effects of Aerobic Training, Resistance Training, or Both on Glycemic Kontrol in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 18, 357-369.

[8]   Goldhaber-Fiebert, J.D., Goldhaber-Fiebert, S.N., Tristan, M.L. and Nathan, D.M. (2003) Randomized Controlled Community-Based Nutrition and Exercise Intervention Improves Glycemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Rural Costa Rica. Diabetes Care, 26, 24-29.

[9]   Boulé, N.G., Haddad, E., Keny, G.P., Wells, G.A. and Sigal, R.J. (2001) Effects of Exercise on Glycemic Control and Body Mass in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. JAMA, 286, 1218-1227.

[10]   Cuff, D.J., Meneilly, G.S., Martin, A., Ignaszewski, A., Tildesly, H.D. and Frolich, J.J. (2003) Effective Exercise Modality to Reduce Insulin Resistance in Women with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 26, 2977-2982.

[11]   Brooks, N., Layne, J.E., Gordon, P.L., Roubenoff, R., Nelson, M.E. and Castaneda-Sceppa, C. (2006) Strength Training Improves Musile Duality and Insulin Sensitivity in Hispanic Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 18, 19-27.

[12]   Cauza, E., Anusch-Enserer, U., Strasser, B., Ludvik, B., Metz-Schimmerl, S., Pacini, G., Wagner, O., Georg, P., Prager, R., Kostner, K. and Dunky, A. (2005) The Relative Benefits of Endurance and Strength Training on Metabolit Factors and Musile Function of People with Type 2 Diabetres Mellitus. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88, 1527-1533.

[13]   Ryan, A.S. (2000) Insulin Resistence with Aging: Effects of Diet and Exercise. Sports Medicine, 30, 327-346.

[14]   Christou, D.D., Ventile, C.L., Desouza, C.A., Seala, D.R. and Gates, P.E. (2005) Fatness Is a Berger Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile Than Aerobic Fitness in Healthy Men. Circulation, 111, 1904-1914.

[15]   Dela, F., von Linstow, M.E., Mikines, K.J. and Galbo, H. (2004) Physical Training May Enhance β-Cell Function in Type 2 Diabetes. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 287, E1024-E1031.

[16]   The Look AHEAD Research Group (2007) Reduction in Weight and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 30, 1374-1383.

[17]   Sullivan, M.J., Higginbotham, M.B. and Cobb, F.R. (1988) Exercise Training in Patiens with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction. Hemodynamic and Metabolic Effects. Circulation, 78, 506-515.

[18]   Demopoulos, L., Bijou, R., Fergus, I., Jones, M., Strom, J. and Lejemtel, T.H. (1997) Exercise Training in Patiens with Severe Congestive Heart Failure: Enhancing Peak Aerobic Capacity while Minimizing the Increase in Ventricular Wall Stress. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 29, 597-603.

[19]   Coats, A.J.S., Adamopoulos, S., Meyer, T.E., et al. (1990) Effect of Physical Training in Chronic Heart Failure. The Lancet, 335, 63-66.

[20]   Killavouri, K., Toivonen, L., Naveri, H. and Leinonen, H. (1995) Reversal of Autonomic Derangemenents by Physical Training in Chronic Hert Failure Assessed by Heart Rate Variability. European Heart Journal, 16, 490-495.

[21]   Ruderman, N. and Devlin, J.T. (1995) The Health Professional’s Guide to Diabetes and Exercise. American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, 133-197, 265-305.

[22]   Short, K.R., Vittone, J.L., Bigelow, M.L., Proctor, D.N., Rizza, R.A., Coenen-Schimke, J.M. and Nair, K.S. (2003) Impact of Aerobic Exercise Training on Age-Related Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Muscle Oxidative Capacity. Diabetes, 52, 1888-1896.

[23]   Lee, S., Kuk, J.L., Davidson, L.E., Hudson, R., Hudson, R., Kilpatrick, K., Graham, T.E. and Ross, R. (2005) Exercise without Weight Loss Is an Effective Strategy for Obesity Reduction in Obese Individuals with and without Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99, 1220-1225.

[24]   Duncan, G.E., Anton, S.D., Sydeman, S.J., Newton, R.L.,Corsica, J.A., Durning, P.E., Ketterson, T.U., Martin, A.D., Limacher, M.C. and Perri, M.G. (2005) Prescribing Exercise at Varied Levels of Intensity and Frequency: A Randomized Trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165, 2362-2369.

[25]   Poirier, P., Trembley, A., Broderick, T.,Catellier, C., Tancrède, G. and Nadeau, A. (2002) Impact of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training on Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Men Treated with Oral Hypoglycemic Agents: Is Insulin Sensitivity Enhanced Only in Nonobese Subjects? Medical Science Monitor, 8, CR59-CR65.

[26]   Houmard, J.A., Tanner, C.J., Slentz, C.A., Duscha, B.D., McCartney, J.S. and Kraus, W.E. (2004) Effect of the Volume and Intensity of Exercise Training on Insulin Sensitivity. Journal of Applied Physiology, 96, 101-106.

[27]   Eriksen, L., Dahl-Petersen, I., Haugaard, S.B. and Dela, F. (2007) Comparison of the Effect of Multiple Short-Duration with Single Long-Duration Exercise Sessions on Glukose Homeostasis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetologia, 50, 2245-2253.

[28]   Ivy, J.L. (1997) Role of Exercise Training in Prevention and Treatment of Insulin Resistence and Non-Insulin-Dependant Diabetes Mellitus. Sports Medicine, 24, 321-336.