Back
 OALibJ  Vol.4 No.2 , February 2017
Multiple Parameter Optimization of Hydration Characteristics and Proximate Compositions of Rice-Soybean Extruded Foods
Abstract: Multi-parameter extrusion cooking conditions for the extrusion of composite flours of rice and soybean were modeled using response surface methodology (RSM). A five-level-three-factors central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to optimize three process variables including barrel temperature (BRT)(X1), feed moisture (FMC)(X2) and feed soybean composition (FSC)(X3) for the achievement of satisfactory hydration characteristics and proximate composition. The fitted polynomial models indicated significant coefficients, satisfactory coefficients of determination (R2 and R2adjusted) and non-significant lack-of-fit test. Optimum X1, X2 and X3 were 120℃, 20%, and 23% for rice-soybean based extrudates. At these optimum combinations, optimum responses were 97.10% for dispersibility, 6.11 water absorption index and 8.42 water solubility index, while proximate composition of 1.02% moisture content, 3.62% lipid, 26.26% protein, 0.48% ash content, 2.14% fibre, 70.13% and 412.14 kcal/100g of energy were obtained. Under the optimized conditions, the responses are well matched with the predicted values and therefore the models could be used to predict the extrusion system in its natural state.
Cite this paper: Nahemiah, D. , Nkama, I. , Bada, M. , Gbenyi, D. , Idakwo, P. , Ndindeng, S. and Moreira, J. (2017) Multiple Parameter Optimization of Hydration Characteristics and Proximate Compositions of Rice-Soybean Extruded Foods. Open Access Library Journal, 4, 1-22. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1102930.
References

[1]   Juliano, B.O. (2016) Rice: Overview. In: Wrigley, C., Corke, H., Seetharaman, K. and Faubion, J., Eds., Encyclopedia of Food Grains, Vol. 1, Academic Press, Oxford, 125-129.
http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissionusematerial
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-394437-5.00015-2


[2]   USAID (2009) Nigerian Rice Value Chain Analysis. Draft Report, United Stated Agency for International Development, Abuja.

[3]   Iwe, M.O., Van Zauilichaem, D.J., Ngoody, P.O. and Ariahu, C.C. (2001) Residence Time Distribution in a Single Screw Extruder Processing Soy Sweet Potato Mixtures. Food Science and Technology, 34, 478-483.
https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.2001.0785

[4]   Iwe, M.O. (2003) The Science and Technology of Soybean. Rejoint Communication Services Ltd., Enugu.

[5]   Filli, K.B., Nkama, I., Abubakar, U.M. and Jideani, V.A. (2010) Influence of Extrusion Variables on Some Functional Properties of Extruded Millet-Soybean for the Manufacture of “Fura”: A Nigerian Traditional Food. African Journal of Food Science, 4, 342-352.
http://www.academicjournals.org/ajfs

[6]   Polhill R.M., Raven P.H. and Stirto, C.H. (1981) Evolution and Systematics of the Leguminosae. In: Polhill, R.M. and Raven, P.H., Eds., Advances in Legume Systematics, Part I, Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, 1-26.

[7]   Garcia, M.C., Marina, M.L., Laborda, F. and Torre, M. (1998) Chemical Characterization of Commercial Soybean Products. Food Chemistry, 62, 325-331.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00231-8

[8]   Graham, P.H. and Vance, C.P. (2003) Legumes: Importance and Constraints to Greater Uses. Plant Physiology, 131, 872-877.
https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.017004

[9]   Kenedy, A.R. (1995) The Evidence for Soybean Products as Cancer Preventive Agents. Journal of Nutrition, 125, S751-S756.

[10]   Molteni, A., Brizio-Molteni, L. and Persky, V. (1995) In Vitro Hormonal Effects of Soybean Isoflavones. Journal of Nutrition, 125, S751-S743.

[11]   Iyer, V., Salunkhe, D.K., Sathe, S.K. and Rockland, L.B. (1980) Quick Cooking Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). II: Phyates, Oligosaccharides and Antienzymes. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 30, 45-52.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01112103

[12]   Harper, J.M. and Jansen, G.R. (1985) Production of Nutritious Pre-Cooked Foods in Developing Countries by Low-Cost Extrusion Technology. Food Review International, 1, 27-97.
https://doi.org/10.1080/87559128509540766

[13]   Ryu, G.H., Neumann, P.E. and Walker, C.E. (1993) Effects of Some Baking Ingredients on Physical and Structural Properties of Wheat Flour Extrudates. Cereal Chemistry, 70, 291-297.

[14]   Abd El-Hady, E.A., Mostafa, G.A., El-Samahy, S.K. and El-Saies, I.A. (1998) Production of High Fiber Corn Extrudates. Journal of Agricultural Science, 23, 1231- 1245.

[15]   Ding, Q.-B., Ainsworth, P., Tucker, G. and Marson, H. (2005) The Effect of Extrusion Conditions on the Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Characteristics of Rice-Based Expanded Snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 66, 283-289.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.03.019

[16]   Anderson, R.A., Conway, H., Pfeifer, V. and Griffin, L. (1969) Gelatinization of Corn Grits by Roll and Extrusion Cooking. Cereal Science Today, 14, 4-12.

[17]   Moore, D., Sanei, E., Vanhecke, Z. and Bouvier, J.M. (1990) Effect of Ingredients on Physical/ Structural Properties of Extrudate. Journal of Food Science, 55, 1383-1387.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb03942.x

[18]   Akdogan, H. (1999) Pressure, Torque and Energy Responses of a Twin Screw Extruder at High Moisture Contents. Food Research International, 29, 423-429.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(96)00036-1

[19]   Bryant, R.J., Kadan, R.S., Champagne, E.J., Veinyard, B.T. and Boykin, B.B. (2001) Functional and Digestive Characteristics of Extruded Rice Flour. Cereal Chemistry, 78, 131-137.
https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.2001.78.2.131

[20]   Danbaba, N., Nkama, I., Badau, M.H., Ukwungwu, M.N., Maji, A.T., Abo, M.E., Hauwawu, H., Fati, K.I. and Oko, A.O. (2014) Optimization of Rice Parboiling Process for Optimum Head Rice Yield: A Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Approach. International Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 4, 154-165.
https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ijaf.20140403.02

[21]   Danbaba, N., Nkama, I. and Badau, M.H. (2015) Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Central Composite Design (CCD) to Optimize Minerals Composition of Rice-Cowpea Composite Blends during Extrusion Cooking. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering, 5, 40-52.
https://doi.org/10.5923/j.food.20150501.06

[22]   Danbaba, N., Nkama, I. and Badau, M.H. (2016) Application of Response Surface Methodology for the Production and Optimization of Extruded Instant Porridge from Broken Rice Fractions Blended Cowpea. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Science, 5, 105-116.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160502.13

[23]   Ganjyal, G., Hanna, M.A., Supprung, P., Noomhorm, A. and Jones, D. (2006) Modeling Selected Properties of Extruded Rice Flour and Rice Starch by Neural Networks and Statistics. Cereal Chemistry, 83, 223-227.
https://doi.org/10.1094/CC-83-0223

[24]   Ascheri, J.L.R. (2010) Curso de Processo de Extrusao de Alimentos: Aspectos T ecnologi-cospara o Desen v olvimento e Producao de Alimentospara Consumo Humano e Animal. 1-88.

[25]   Likimani, T.A., Sofos, J.N., Maga J.A. and Harper, J.M. (1991) Extrusion Cooking of Corn/Soybean Mix Is Presence of Thermo-Stable a-Amylase. Journal of Food Science, 56, 99-105.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb07985.x

[26]   Filli, K.B., Nkama, I., Jideani, V.A. and Abubakar, U.M. (2011) Application of Response Surface Method-ology for the Study of Composition of Extruded Millet-Cowpea Mixtures for the Manufacture of Fura: A Nigerian Food. African Journal of Food Science, 5, 884-896.
https://doi.org/10.5897/AJFS11.169

[27]   Anderson, R.A., Conway, H.F., Pfeifer, V.F. and Griffin, L.E.J. (1969) Roll and Extrusion Cooking of Grain Sorghum Grits. Cereal Science Today, 14, 372-375.

[28]   Jin, Z., Hsieh, F. and Huff, H.E. (1995) Effect of Soy Fibre, Salt, Sugar and Screw Speed on Physical Properties and Microstructure of Corn Meal Extrudes. Journal of Cereal Science, 22, 185-194.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0733-5210(95)90049-7

[29]   Onwulata, C.I., Konstance, R.P., Smith, P.W. and Holsinger, V.H. (1998) Physical Properties of Extruded Products as Affected by Cheese Whey. Journal of Food Science, 63, 1-5.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1998.tb17906.x

[30]   AOAC (1984) Official Methods of Analysis. 14th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington.

[31]   Box, G.E.P. and Hunter, J.S. (1957) Multifactor Experimental Designs for Exploring Response Surface. Annal of Mathematics and Statistics, 28, 195-241.
https://doi.org/10.1214/aoms/1177707047

[32]   Montgomery, D.C. (1997) Response Surface Methods and Other Approaches to Process Optimization. In: Montgomery, D.C., Ed., Design and Analysis of Experiment, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 427-510.

[33]   Almeida-Dominguez, H.D., Gomez, M.H., Serna-Saldivar, S.O., Waniska, R.D., Rooney, L.W. and Lusas, W. (1993) Extrusion Cooking of Peal Millet for Production of Millet-Cowpea Weaning Foods. Cereal Chemistry, 70, 214-219.

[34]   Kone, T. and Launay, B. (1987) Properties viscoelastiques at cinetique de retrogradation des empoisdamidon de mais extrude. Colloque de I’INRA, 41, 153.

[35]   Jackson, D.S., Waniska, R.D. and Rooney, L.W. (1998) Differential Water Solubility of Corn and Sorghum Starches and Their Characteristics by High Performance Size Extlusion Chromatography. Cereal Chemistry, 66, 228.

[36]   Conway, H.F. (1971) Extrusion Cooking of Cereals and Soybeans. Part I. Food Product Development, 5, 27.

[37]   Artz, W.E., Warren, C. and Villota, R. (1990) Twin-Screw Extrusion Modification of a Corn Fibre and Corn Starch Extruded Blend. Journal of Food Science, 55, 746- 750. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb05220.x

[38]   Badrie, N. and Mellowes, W.A. (1991) Effect of Extrusion Variables on Cassava Extrudates. Journal of Food Science, 56, 1334-1337.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb04766.x

[39]   Koocheki, A., Taherian, A.R., Razavi, S.M.A. and Bostan, A. (2009) Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Extraction Yield, Viscosity, and Hue and Emulsion Stability of Mucilage Extracted from Lepidium perfoliatum Seeds. Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 2369-2379.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2009.06.014

[40]   Chauhan, B. and Gupta, R. (2004) Application of Statistical Experimental Design for Optimization of Alkaline Protease Production from Bacillus sp RGR-14. Process Biochemistry, 39, 12-45.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2003.11.002

[41]   Myers, R.H. and Montgomery, D.C. (2002) Response Surface Methodology: Product and Process Op-timization Using Designed Experiments. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

[42]   Milán-Carrillo, J., Montoya-Rodriguez, A., Gutierrez-Dorado, R., Perales-Sanchez, X. and Reyes-Moreno, C. (2012) Optimization of Extrusion Process for Producing High Antioxidant Instant Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Flour Using Response Surface Methodology. Applied Mathematics, 3, 1516-1525.
https://doi.org/10.4236/am.2012.330211

[43]   Wu, H., Wang O., Ma, T. and Ran, J. (2009) Comparative Studies on the Functional Properties of Various Proteins Concentrate Preparations of Peanut Protein. Food Research International, 42, 345-348.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2008.12.006

[44]   Charunuch, C., Tangkankul, P., Limsagoun, N. and Sonted, V. (2008) Effect of Extrusion Conditions on the Physical and Functional Properties of Instant Cereal Beverage Powders Admixed with Mulberry (Morusalba L.) Leaves. Food Science and Technology Research, 14, 421-430.
https://doi.org/10.3136/fstr.14.421

[45]   Camire, M.E., Camire, A. and Krumhar, K. (1990) Chemical and Nutritional Changes in Foods during Extrusion. Critical Review in Food Science and Nutrition, 29, 35-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408399009527513

[46]   Marzec, A. and Lewiski, P.P. (2003) Anti-Plasticization of Cereal-Based Products by Water. Part I: Extruded Flat Bread. Journal of Food Engineering, 73, 1-8.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.12.002

[47]   Mesquita, C.B., Leonel, M. and Mischan, M.N. (2013) Effect of Processing on Physical Properties of Extruded Snacks with Blends of Sour Cassava Starch and Flaxed Flour. Food Science and Technology, Campinas, 33, 404-410.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612013005000073

[48]   Anuar, N., Adnan, A.F.M., Saat, N., Aziz, N. and Taha, R.M. (2013) Optimization of Extraction Parameters by Using Response Surface Methodology, Purification, and Identification of Anthocyanin Pigments in Melastoma malabathricum Fruit. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, Article ID: 810547.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/810547

[49]   Gupta, K., Mansi, V., Payal, J. and Monika, J. (2014) Process Optimization for Producing Cowpea Added Instant Kheer Mix Using Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Nutrition Health and Food Engineering, 1, 00030.
https://doi.org/10.15406/jnhfe.2014.00030

 
 
Top