Health  Vol.9 No.2 , February 2017
Should Empyema with or without Necrotizing Pneumonia in Children Be Managed Differently?
Abstract: Background: Necrotizing pneumonia (NP) is an increasing lung infection mostly associated with pleural empyema. Objectives: We aimed to compare children with empyema with and without concomitant NP, in terms of risk factors, management and outcome. Methods: We retrospectively included children hospitalized between 2005-2014 with empyema to whom a computed tomography was performed. We recorded patient characteristics, clinical, biological (blood and pleural fluid) and radiological findings, medical and surgical treatments, and clinical, radiological and functional follow-up. Results: 35 children with empyema were included, including 25 with a concomitant NP. Patients with or without NP were undistinguishable, in terms of characteristics, symptoms at admission or detected pathogens. Pleural leucocytes were significantly higher in the empyema group (p = 0.0002) as pleural LDH (p = 0.002), and pleural/blood LDH ratio (p = 0.0005). Medical and surgical managements were similar between both groups. Complications occurred in 1/10 children with empyema alone (pneumatocele) and 5/25 with concomitant NP (bronchopleural fistula (n = 3), lobectomy, pneumothorax). The hospital length of stay and delay for chest X-ray normalization were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Except for minor biological parameters, the presence of concomitant NP in case of empyema does not change the presentation, clinical features, management and outcome, suggesting that the presence of additional NP to empyema should not be managed differently. Therefore, in case of empyema with suspected concomitant NP, chest CT should probably be restricted to abnormal worsening or when mandatory for surgical treatment.
Cite this paper: Stelle, K. , Mornand, A. , Bajwa, N. , Vidal, I. , Anooshiravani, M. , Kanavaki, A. , Argiroffo, C. and Blanchon, S. (2017) Should Empyema with or without Necrotizing Pneumonia in Children Be Managed Differently?. Health, 9, 209-222. doi: 10.4236/health.2017.92014.

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