Back
 Health  Vol.9 No.1 , January 2017
Evaluation of the Distribution and Factors Affecting Blood Pressure Using Medical Checkup Data in Japan
Abstract: In this paper, we first evaluated the distribution of blood pressure (BP) using a dataset containing 113,979 measurements in 48,022 individuals with the cooperation of one health insurance society in Japan from April, 2013 to March, 2016. The means of the systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 125.4 and 77.6 mmHg with standard deviations of 16.5 and 11.7 mmHg, respectively. Under the 140/90 criterion, 21.6% of the measurements showed hypertension. According to the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension criterion, 16.4%, 4.2% and 0.96% were classified as grades 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The factors affecting BP were evaluated by a regression analysis and were found to include age, gender, some eating habits, daily activities, smoking, drinking alcohol, sleeping and wages. Age was a very important factor, and the age cohorts from the previous study might be revised based on these findings. Among factors that individuals can control, the influence of drinking alcohol is very large. Comparing to an individual who does not drink, SBP and DBP of a heavy drinker are more than 5.0 mmHg higher on the average.
Cite this paper: Nawata, K. , Matsumoto, A. , Kajihara, R. and Kimura, M. (2017) Evaluation of the Distribution and Factors Affecting Blood Pressure Using Medical Checkup Data in Japan. Health, 9, 124-137. doi: 10.4236/health.2017.91009.
References

[1]   World Health Organization (2016) Raised Blood Pressure.
http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/blood_pressure_prevalence_text/en/

[2]   Blood Pressure Association, UK (2008) Blood Pressure Chart for Adults.
http://www.bloodpressureuk.org/BloodPressureandyou/Thebasics/Bloodpressurechart

[3]   Wohlfahrt, P., Cifková, R., Movsisyan, N., et al. (2016) Threshold for Diagnosing Hypertension by Automated Office Blood Pressure Using Random Population. Journal of Hypertension, 2180-2186.
https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001076

[4]   Omiboni, S., Aristizabal, D., De la Sierra, A., et al. (2016) Hypertension Types Defined by Clinic and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in 14142 Patients Referred to Hypertension Clinics Worldwide. Data from ARTEMIS Study. Journal of Hypertension, 34, 2187-2198.
https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001074

[5]   AACN Practice Alert (2016) Obtaining Accurate Noninvasive Blood Pressure Measurements in Adults. Critical Care Nurse, 36, e12-e16.
https://doi.org/10.4037/ccn2016590

[6]   Keyarney, P.M., Whelton, M., Reynolds, K., et al. (2005) Global Burden of Hypertension: Analysis of Worldwide Data. Lancet, 365, 21-223.

[7]   GBD 2013 Risk Factors Collaborates (2015) Global, Regional, and National Risk Assessment of 79 Behavioural, Environmental and Occupational, and Metabolic risks or Clusters of Risks in 188 Countries, 1990-2013: A Systematic Analysis for Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet, 386, 2287-2323.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00128-2

[8]   Gupta, R., Sharma, A.K. and Gupta, V.P. (2003) Increased Variance in Blood Pressure and Changing Hypertension Prevalence in an Indian Population. Journal of Human Hypertension, 17, 535-540.
https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jhh.1001588

[9]   Alleyne, D. (2010) The Impact of User Fees on Health Costs and Health Burdens in Jamaica: The Cases of Diabetes and Hypertension. Social and Economic Studies, 59, 91-121.

[10]   Ibrahim, M.M. and Damasceno, A. (2012) Hypertension in Developing Countries. Lancet, 380, 611-619.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60861-7

[11]   Wachtell, K. and Okin, P.M. (2016) An Age-Old Test in Old Age: ECG Left Ventricular Hyperophy and Cardiovascular Outcomes in the Elderly. Journal of Hypertension, 34, 2145-2146.
https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001107

[12]   Chobanian, A.V., Bakris, G.L., Black, H.B., et al. (2003) Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension, 42, 1206-1252.
https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000107251.49515.c2

[13]   National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and US Department of Health and Human Services (2004) National High Blood Pressure Education Program: Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (Complete Report).
https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/guidelines/jnc7full.pdf

[14]   National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and US Department of Health and Human Services (2015) Description of High Blood Pressure.
https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hbp

[15]   Vasan, S.R., Larson, M.G., Leip, E.P., et al. (2001) Impact of High-Normal Blood Pressure on the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 1291-1297.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa003417

[16]   Prospective Studies Collaboration (2002) Age-Specific Relevance of Usual Blood Pressure to Vascular Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Individual Data for One Million Adults in 61 Prospective Studies. Lancet, 360, 1903-1913.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11911-8

[17]   Guidelines Subcommittee (1990) 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for Management of Hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 17, 151-183.

[18]   Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Labor (2016) Heisei 26 nendo kokumin iryouhi no gayou [Summary of National Medical Expenditures]. (In Japanese)

[19]   Codliffe, S. and Link, C.R. (2014) Racial Differences in the Effects of Hypertension and Obesity on Health Expenditures by Diabetes in the US. Applied Economics Letters, 21, 280-283.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2013.856990

[20]   Blanchflower, D.G. and Oswald, A.J. (2008) Hypertension and Happiness across Nations. Journal of Health Economics, 27, 218-233.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2007.06.002

[21]   Mojon-Azzi, S. and Sousa-Pazo, A. (2011) Hypertension and Life Satisfaction: An Analysis Using Data from the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe. Applied Economics Letters, 18, 183-187.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13504850903508291

[22]   Joffres, M.R., Mamet, P., MacLean, D.R., et al. (2001) Distribution of Blood Pressure and Hypertension in Canada and the United States. American Journal of Hypertension, 14, 1099-1105.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7061(01)02211-7

[23]   Rose, G. (2001) Sick Individuals and Sick Populations. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30, 427-432.
https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/30.3.427

[24]   Gorman, B.K. and Porter, J.R. (2011) Social Networks and Support, Gender, and Radical/Ethic Disparities in Hypertension among Older Adults. Population Research & Policy Review, 20, 885-911.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11113-011-9215-4

[25]   Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Sciences (2016) NIPPON DATA 2010. (In Japanese)
https://hs-web.shiga-med.ac.jp/Nippondata/NIPPONDATA2010/research/
Data%20table/3_ketsuatsu.pdf

[26]   Miura, K., Nagai, M. and Ohkubo, T. (2013) Epidemiology of Hypertension in Japan—Where Are We Now? Circulation Journal, 77, 2226-2231.
https://doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-13-0847

[27]   Fujiyoshi, A., Ohkubo, T., Miura, K., et al. (2012) Blood Pressure Categories and Log-Term Risk of Cardiovascular Disease According to Age Group in Japanese Men and Women. Hypertension Research, 35, 947-953.
https://doi.org/10.1038/hr.2012.87

[28]   Japanese Law Translation (2009) Industrial Safety and Health Act.
http://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/law/detail/?id=1926&vm=&re

[29]   National Federation of Health Insurance Societies (2016) Kenporen ni tsuite. (In Japanese)
http://www.kenporen.com/outline/

[30]   World Health Organization (2015) Raised Blood Pressure (SBP ≥ 140 or DBP ≥ 90) Crude Data by WHO Region.
http://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.main.2540?lang=en

[31]   Ebrahim, S. and Smith, G.D. (1998) Lowering Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review of Sustained Effects of Non-Pharmacological Interventions. Journal of Public Health Medicine, 20, 441-448.
https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.pubmed.a024800

[32]   Leitter, L.A., Abbott, D. and Campbell, N.R.C. (1999) Recommendations on Obesity and Weight Loss. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 160, S7-S12.

[33]   Xin, X., He, J., Frontini, M.G., Ogden, L.G., Motsamai, O.I. and Whelton, P.K. (2001) Effects of Alcohol Reduction on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trails. Hypertension, 38, 1112-1117.
https://doi.org/10.1161/hy1101.093424

[34]   Stevens, V.J., Obarzanek, E., Cook, N.R., et al. (2001) Long-Term Weight Loss and Changes in Blood Pressure: Results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, Phase II. Annals of Medicine, 134, 1-11.
https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-134-1-200101020-00007

[35]   Powdthavee, N. (2010) Does Education Reduce the Risk of Hypertension? Estimating the Biomarker Effect of Compulsory Schooling in England. Journal of Human Capital, 4, 173-202.
https://doi.org/10.1086/657020

[36]   Gerber, M., Endes, K., Herrmann, C., et al. (2016) Does Physical Fitness Buffer the Relationship between Psychosocial Stress, Retinal Vessel Diameters, and Blood Pressure among Primary Schoolchildren? BioMed Research International, 2016, Article ID: 6340431.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6340431

 
 
Top