AJPS  Vol.8 No.2 , January 2017
Effect of Grains of Paradise (GP) Extract Intake on Obesity and Sympathetic Nerve Activity
Abstract: The methanol extract of grains of paradise (GP), the seed of Aframomum melegueta, which is distributed throughout West Africa, was administered during an animal breeding test. The extract suppressed body weight gain and decreased the weight of adipose tissues in breeding mice, with a greater effect on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) than on those fed a normal diet (ND). Other significant effects of GP intake included increased serum triglyceride (TG) concentration and reduced hepatic total cholesterol (TC) and TG concentrations. GP intake markedly prevented fat accumulation and improved hepatic lipid metabolism in HFD-fed mice. In addition, GP extract at a dosage of 5 mg/kg body weight decreased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in brown adipose tissue (BAT), while capsaicin, a major component of chili pepper, activated BAT SNA. This suggested that GP exerts a potential anti-obesity effect by a different mechanism from that of capsaicin.
Cite this paper: Hattori, H. , Yamauchi, K. , Onwona-Agyeman, S. and Mitsunaga, T. (2017) Effect of Grains of Paradise (GP) Extract Intake on Obesity and Sympathetic Nerve Activity. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 8, 85-95. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2017.82007.

[1]   Park, A., Kim, K.W. and Bae, K.-H. (2014) Distinguishing White, Beige and Brown Adipocytes Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells. World Journal of Stem Cells, 6, 33-42.

[2]   Joseph, M.R., Jennifer, H.S. and Philipp, E.S. (2015) The Cell Biology of Fat Expression. The Journal of Cell Biology, 208, 501-512.

[3]   Cannon, B. and Nedergaard, J. (2004) Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance. Physiological Reviews, 84, 277-359.

[4]   Silva, J.E. (2006) Thermogenic Mechanisms and Their Hormonal Regulation. Physiological Reviews, 86, 435-464.

[5]   Wijers, S.L., Saris, W.H. and van MarkenLichtenbelt, W.D. (2009) Recent Advances in Adaptive Thermogenesis: Potential Implications for the Treatment of Obesity. Obesity Reviews, 10, 218-226.

[6]   Iwu, M.M. (1993) Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.

[7]   Dokosi, O.B. (1998) Herbs of Ghana. Ghana Universities Press, Accra.

[8]   Kenneth, G.N., Olivier, C., Venasius, K.W., Paul, S., Christopher, T.E. and Chen, S. (2014) In Vitro Bactericidal Activity of Diterpenoids Isolated from Aframomum melegueta K. Schum against Strains of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocyto Genes and Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 151, 1147-1154.

[9]   Ukeh, D.A., Birkett, M.A., Pickett, J.A., Bowman, A.S. and Mordue Luntz, A.J. (2009) Repellent Activity of Alligator Pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and Ginger, Zingiber offcinale, against the Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Phytochemistry, 70, 751-758.

[10]   Onoja, S.O., Omeh, Y.N., Ezeja, M.I. and Chukwu, M.N. (2014) Evaluation of the in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract. Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2014, 1-6.

[11]   Ilic, N.M., Dey, M., Poulev, A.A., Logendra, S., Kuhn, P.E. and Raskin, I. (2014) Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta Schum) Extract. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62, 10452-10457.

[12]   Mohammed, A., Koorbanally, N.A. and Islam, M.S. (2015) Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Aframomum melegueta Fruit Ameliorates Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction and Major Diabetes-Related Parameters in a Type 2 Diabetes Model of Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 175, 518-527.

[13]   El-Halawany, A.M., El Dine, R.S., El Sayed, N.S. and Hattori, M. (2014) Protective Effect of Aframomum melegueta Phenolics against CCl4-Induced Rat Hepatocytes Damage; Role of Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Inhibition. Scientific Reports, 4, 5880.

[14]   Al Othman, Z.A., Ahmed, Y.B., Habila, M.A. and Ghafar, A.A. (2011) Determination of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum Fruit Samples Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Molecules, 16, 8919-8929.

[15]   Saito, M. (2015) Capsaicin and Related Food Ingredients Reducing Body Fat through the Activation of TRP and Brown Fat Thermogenesis. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, 76, 1-28.

[16]   Pomonis, J.D., Harrison, J.E., Mark, L., Bristol, D.R., Valenzano, K.J. and Walker, K. (2003) N-(4-Tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-Cholorphyridin-2-yl)-Tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-Carbox-Amide (BCTC), a Novel, Orally Effective Vanilloid Receptor 1 Antagonist with Analgesic Properties: II. in Vivo Characterization in Rat Models of Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 306, 387-393.

[17]   Takeuchi, K., Araki, H., Umeda, M., Komoike, Y. and Suzuki, K. (2001) Adaptive Gastric Cytoprotection Is Mediated by Prostaglandin EP1 Receptors: A Study Using Rats and Knockout Mice. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 297, 1160-1165.

[18]   Kobayashi, H., Horiguchi-Babamoto, E., Suzuki, M., Makihara, H., Tomozawa, H., Tsubata, M., Shimada, T., Sugiyama, K. and Aburada, M. (2016) Effects of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kaempferia parviflora on Brown Adipose Tissue. Journal of Natural Medicines, 70, 54-61.

[19]   Iwami, M., Mahmoud, F.A., Shiina, T., Hirayama, H., Shima, T., Sugita, J. and Shimizu, Y. (2011) Extract of Grains of Paradise and Its Active Principle 6-Paradol Trigger Thermogenesis of Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, 161, 63-67.

[20]   De Craemer, D., Vamecq, J., Roels, F., Vallée, L., Pauwels, M. and van den Branden, C. (1994) Peroxisomes in Liver, Heart, and Kidney of Mice Fed a Commercial Fish Oil Preparation: Original Data and Review on Peroxisomal Changes Induced by High-Fat Diets. The Journal of Lipid Research, 35, 1241-1250.

[21]   Jennifer, J.S. and John, D.A. (2013) Peroxisome Take Shape. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 14, 803-817.

[22]   Kersten, S., Desvergne, B. and Wahli, W. (2000) Roles of PPARs in Health and Disease. Nature, 405, 421-424.

[23]   Patsouris, D., Reddy, J.K., Müller, M. and Kersten, S. (2006) Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Mediates the Effects of High-Fat Diet on Hepatic Gene Expression. Endocrinology, 147, 1508-1516.

[24]   Isa, Y., Miyakawa, Y., Yanagisawa, M., Goto, T., Kang, M.S., Kawada, T., Morimitsu, Y., Kubota, K. and Tsuda, T. (2008) 6-Shogaol and 6-Gingerol, the Pungent of Ginger, Inhibit TNF-α Mediated Downregulation of Adiponectin Expression via Different Mechanisms in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 373, 429-434.

[25]   Klaus, S., Ely, M., Encke, D. and Heldmaier, G. (1995) Functional Assessment of White and Brown Adipocyte Development and Energy Metabolism in Cell Culture. Dissociation of Terminal Differentiation and Thermogenesis in Brown Adipocytes. Journal of Cell Science, 108, 3171-3180.

[26]   Cypess, A.M., Lehman, S., Williams, G., Tal, I., Rodman, D., Goldfine, A.B., Kuo, F.C., Palmer, E.L., Tseng, Y.H., Doria, A., Kolodny, G.M. and Kahn, C.R. (2009) Identification and Importance of Brown Adipose Tissue in Adult Humans. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360, 1509-1517.

[27]   Cinti, S. (2005) The Adipose Organ. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids, 73, 9-15.

[28]   Kawada, T., Hagihara, K. and Iwai, K. (1986) Effects of Capsaicin on Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High Fat Diet. The Journal of Nutrition, 116, 1272-1278.

[29]   Ludy, M.J., Moore, G.E. and Mattes, R.D. (2012) The Effects of Capsaicin and Capsiate on Energy Balance: Critical Review and Meta-Analyses of Studies in Humans. Chemical Senses, 37, 103-121.

[30]   Holzer, P. (1991) Capsaicin: Cellular Targets, Mechanisms of Action, and Selectivity for Thin Sensory Neurons. Pharmacological Reviews, 43, 143-201.

[31]   Saito, M. and Yoneshiro, T. (2013) Capsinoids and Related Food Ingredients Activating Brown Fat Thermogenesis and Reducing Body Fat in Humans. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 24, 71-77.

[32]   El-Halawany, A.M. and Hattori, M. (2012) Anti-Estrogenic Diarylheptanoids from Aframomum melegueta with in Silico Estrogen Receptor Alpha Binding Conformation Similar to Enterodiol and Enterolactone. Food Chemistry, 134, 219-226.

[33]   Calixto, J.B., Kassuya, C.A., Andre, E. and Ferreira, J. (2005) Contribution of Natural Products to the Discovery of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels Family and Their Functions. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 106, 179-208.

[34]   Tackie, A.N., Dwuma-Badu, D., Ayim, J.S.K., Dabra, T.T., Knapp, J.E., Slatkin, D.J. and Schiff, P.L.J. (1975) Hydroxyphenylalkanones from Amomum melegueta. Phytochemistry, 14, 853-854.

[35]   Riera, C.E., Menozzi-Smarrito, C., Affolter, M., Michlig, S., Munari, C., Robert, F., Vogel, H., Simon, S.A. and le Coutre, J. (2009) Compounds from Sichuan and Melegueta Peppers Activate, Covalently and Non-Covalently, TRPA1 and TRPV1 Channels. British Journal of Pharmacology, 157, 1398-1409.

[36]   Sheng, L., Qian, Z., Zheng, S. and Xi, L. (2006) Mechanism of Hypolipidemic Effect of Crocin in Rats: Crocin Inhibits Pancreatic Lipase. European Journal of Pharmacology, 543, 116-122.

[37]   Brown, W.V. (2003) Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors: Defining New Options in Lipid Management. Clinical Cardiology, 26, 259-264.

[38]   Wang, S., Noh, S.K. and Koo, S.I. (2006) Epigallocatechin Gallate and Caffeine Differentially Inhibit the Intestinal Absorption of Cholesterol and Fat in Ovariectomized Rats. Journal of Nutrition, 136, 2791-2796.

[39]   Han, L.K., Gong, X.J., Kawano, S., Saito, M., Kimura, Y. and Okuda, H. (2005) Antiobesity Actions of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Yakugaku Zasshi, 125, 213-217.

[40]   Saravanan, G., Ponmurugan, P., Deepa, M.A. and Senthilkumar, B. (2014) Anti-Obesity Action of Gingerol: Effect on Lipid Profile, Insulin, Leptin, Amylase and Lipase in Male Obese Rats Induced by a High-Fat Diet. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94, 2972-2977.